ABSTRACT To review the short- and long-term safety and efficacy of stimulants for the treatment of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
A Medline search was conducted for both randomized controlled trials and reviews to determine the efficacy and safety of stimulant drugs for treating children with ADHD. Information was obtained on adverse events associated with their use, including their impact on height and weight gain during childhood. Animal data were reviewed for information on tolerance, sensitization, and the impact of high-dose stimulant effects on neurons and on the development of hepatic tumors. Human data on dopamine transporter occupancy by stimulants were also included.
Stimulant treatment studies show robust short-term efficacy and a good safety profile. Longer-term studies are few in number but have produced no conclusive evidence that careful therapeutic use of these medications is harmful.
Current evidence indicates that stimulants show efficacy and safety in studies lasting up to 24 months.
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ABSTRACT: Objective Results of the NIMH Collaborative Multisite Multimodal Treatment Study of Children With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (MTA) were analyzed to determine whether a double-blind, placebo-controlled methylphenidate (MPH) titration trial identified the best MPH dose for each child with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
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ABSTRACT: Psychostimulants are effective treatments for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) but may be associated with euphoric effects, misuse/diversion, and adverse effects. These risks are perceived by some clinicians to be greater in substance-abusing adolescents relative to non-substance-abusing adults. The present study evaluates the subjective effects, misuse/diversion, and adverse effects associated with the use of osmotic-release oral system methylphenidate (OROS-MPH), relative to placebo, for treating ADHD in adolescents with a substance use disorder (SUD) as a function of substance use severity and compared these risks with those associated with the treatment of ADHD in adults without a non-nicotine SUD. Datasets from two randomized placebo-controlled trials of OROS-MPH for treating ADHD, one conducted with 303 adolescents (13-18) with at least one non-nicotine SUD and one with 255 adult smokers (18-55), were analyzed. Outcome measures included the Massachusetts General Hospital Liking Scale, self-reported medication compliance, pill counts, and adverse events (AEs). Euphoric effects and misuse/diversion of OROS-MPH were not significantly affected by substance use severity. The euphoric effects of OROS-MPH did not significantly differ between the adolescent and adult samples. Adults rated OROS-MPH as more effective in treating ADHD, whereas adolescents reported feeling more depressed when taking OROS-MPH. The adolescents lost more pills relative to the adults regardless of treatment condition, which suggests the importance of careful medication monitoring. Higher baseline use of alcohol and cannabis was associated with an increased risk of experiencing a treatment-related AE in OROS-MPH, but baseline use did not increase the risk of serious AEs or of any particular category of AE and the adolescents did not experience more treatment-related AEs relative to the adults. With good monitoring, and in the context of substance abuse treatment, OROS-MPH can be safely used in adolescents with an SUD despite non-abstinence.Journal of child and adolescent psychopharmacology 10/2011; 21(5):455-63. DOI:10.1089/cap.2011.0014 · 3.07 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Attention-deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is characterized by a pervasive pattern of developmentally inappropriate inattentive, impulsive and hyperactive behaviors that typically begin during the preschool years and often persist into adulthood. The most effective and widely used treatments for ADHD are medication and behavior modification. These empirically-supported interventions are generally successful in reducing ADHD symptoms, but treatment effects are rarely maintained beyond the active intervention. Because ADHD is now generally thought of as a chronic disorder that is often present well into adolescence and early adulthood, the need for continued treatment throughout the lifetime is both costly and problematic for a number of logistical reasons. Therefore, it would be highly beneficial if treatments would have lasting effects that remain after the intervention is terminated. This review examines the burgeoning literature on the underlying neural determinants of ADHD along with research demonstrating powerful influences of environmental factors on brain development and functioning. Based upon these largely distinct scientific literatures, we propose an approach that employs directed play and physical exercise to promote brain growth which, in turn, could lead to the development of potentially more enduring treatments for the disorder.Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews 01/2011; 35(3):621-34. DOI:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2010.07.006 · 10.28 Impact Factor