Article

Poisoning of wildlife with anticoagulant rodenticides in New York. J Wildl Dis

Wildlife Pathology Unit, New York State Department of Environment Conservation, Delmar 12054, USA.
Journal of wildlife diseases (Impact Factor: 1.31). 05/1999; 35(2):187-93. DOI: 10.7589/0090-3558-35.2.187
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ABSTRACT From 1971 through 1997, we documented 51 cases (55 individual animals) of poisoning of non-target wildlife in New York (plus two cases in adjoining states) (USA) with anticoagulant rodenticides--all but two of these cases occurred in the last 8 yrs. Brodifacoum was implicated in 80% of the incidents. Diphacinone was identified in four cases, bromadiolone in three cases (once in combination with brodifacoum), and chlorophacinone and coumatetralyl were detected once each in the company of brodifacoum. Warfarin accounted for the three cases documented prior to 1989, and one case involving a bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) in 1995. Secondary intoxication of raptors, principally great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) and red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), comprised one-half of the cases. Gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis), raccoons (Procyon lotor) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were the most frequently poisoned mammals. All of the deer originated from a rather unique situation on a barrier island off southern Long Island (New York). Restrictions on the use of brodifacoum appear warranted.

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    • "In some cases, raptors feed on the rodents against which these substances are used, but some species also feed on granivorous birds that sometimes have accidentally ingested cereal baits (Sanchez-Barbudo et al., 2012). As a result, several studies confirm the presence of AR residues in the tissues of raptors (Albert et al., 2010; Hughes et al., 2013; Rattner et al., 2011, 2012; Sanchez-Barbudo et al., 2012; Thomas et al., 2011; Walker et al., 2008), and it appears that in many cases, this exposure leads the birds to a secondary poisoning that can cause them to weaken or die (Hughes et al., 2013; Sanchez-Barbudo et al., 2012; Stone et al., 1999; Thomas et al., 2011). Due to the relative isolation and climate of the Canary Islands, the flora and fauna of the islands are completely unique from those of the European and African continents. "
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    ABSTRACT: Anticoagulant rodenticides are highly toxic compounds that are widely used for pest control of rodents, but that also may threaten the wildlife's health. This work aimed to assess the exposure to first- and second-generation anticoagulant rodenticides (ARs) in six birds of prey species from the Canary Islands (Spain). The concentrations of seven widely used ARs were determined by LC-MS/MS in 104 liver samples of six species of birds of prey (Buteo buteo, Accipiter nisus, Falco pelegrinoides, Falco tinnunculus, Asio otus, and Tyto alba). We determined that 61% of the livers had detectable residues of at least one AR. The most frequently detected AR was bromadiolone, which was detected in 60.3% of the positive cases. The detection frequencies of these compounds varied widely, depending on the species. More than 75% of the A. nisus, T. alba, and A. otus individuals had detectable rodenticide residues in the liver. However, F. tinnunculus exhibited the highest concentrations of AR, with median values above 100ng/g w.w. We did not detect first-generation ARs in any of the samples. When grouped, nocturnal species exhibited higher AR concentrations than diurnal species (P<0.001). The residue levels were higher among small mammal-eaters than bird-eaters (P<0.01). While most animals exhibited no macroscopic signs of coagulation disorders, approximately 35% exceeded the threshold levels of toxicity, which suggests that these compounds could weaken these animals in their natural environment. In conclusion, the control of rodent populations by ARs suggests that these compounds will enter the food chain and thus threaten the vulnerable populations of raptors on the Canary Islands. Our findings require authorities to ban or strictly control the use of these rodenticides in the natural environment for the conservation of raptors and other predatory species.
    Science of The Total Environment 04/2014; 485-486C(1):371-376. DOI:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.03.094 · 4.10 Impact Factor
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    • "In some cases, raptors feed on the rodents against which these substances are used, but some species also feed on granivorous birds that sometimes have accidentally ingested cereal baits (Sanchez-Barbudo et al., 2012). As a result, several studies confirm the presence of AR residues in the tissues of raptors (Albert et al., 2010; Hughes et al., 2013; Rattner et al., 2011, 2012; Sanchez-Barbudo et al., 2012; Thomas et al., 2011; Walker et al., 2008), and it appears that in many cases, this exposure leads the birds to a secondary poisoning that can cause them to weaken or die (Hughes et al., 2013; Sanchez-Barbudo et al., 2012; Stone et al., 1999; Thomas et al., 2011). Due to the relative isolation and climate of the Canary Islands, the flora and fauna of the islands are completely unique from those of the European and African continents. "
    Science of The Total Environment 01/2014; s 485–486:371–376. · 4.10 Impact Factor
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    • "The greater persistence and toxicity of SGAR compounds has resulted in increased incidence of exposure and poisoning of nontarget wildlife, primarily predatory birds and mammals ( Hegdal and Colvin 1988;Newton et al. 1990; Shore et al 1996; Tobin et al. 1996; Newton et al. 1999, 2000; Stone et al. 1999, 2003; Howald et al. 1999; Eason et al. 2002; Lambert et al. 2007; Riley et al. 2007; Walker et al. 2008; Albert et al. 2010, Lima and Salmon 2010; Murray 2011; Thomas et al. 2011; Christensen et al. 2012; Gabriel et al. 2012). However, with some exceptions (Merson et al. 1984; Cox and Smith 1990, 1992; Howald 1997; Eason et al. 2002; Brakes and Smith 2005; Lima and Salmon 2010), few studies have examined the exposure pathways from rodenticide bait deployment to nontarget wildlife exposure. "
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    ABSTRACT: Second-generation anticoagulant rodenticides are widely reported to contaminate and poison nontarget wildlife, primarily predatory birds and mammals. Exposure pathways, however, have not been well defined. Here, we examined potential movement of rodenticides from deployment of bait to exposure of small mammals and other biota. At two adjacent working farms, we placed baits containing either brodifacoum or bromadiolone. We monitored movement of those compounds to the surrounding environment by collecting small mammals, birds, and invertebrates. Similar collections were made at a third agricultural setting without active bait deployment, but located among intensive livestock production and regular rodenticide use by farmers. Livers and whole invertebrate samples were analyzed for rodenticides using a sensitive LC-MSMS method. Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) from both baited and non-baited farms had residues of brodifacoum or bromadiolone, implicating rats as an important exposure pathway to wildlife. Among 35 analyzed nontarget small mammals, a single vole had high hepatic residues (18.6 μ/g), providing some indication of a small mammal pathway. One song sparrow (Melospiza melodia) sample from a baited farm contained 0.073 μg/g of brodifacoum in liver, while 0.39 μg/g of diphacinone was measured in a pool of carrion beetles (Dermestes spp.) from the non-baited farm area, implicating avian and invertebrate components in exposure pathways. Regurgitated pellets of barn owl (Tyto alba) selected randomly from baited farms contained no detectable rodenticide residues, while 90 % of owl pellets collected from a variety of farms, and selected for the presence of rat fur, contained detectable anticoagulant residues. We recorded behavior of a captive sample of a representative songbird, the house sparrow (Passer domesticus); they readily entered bait stations and fed on (unloaded) bait.
    Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 09/2013; 186(2). DOI:10.1007/s10661-013-3422-x · 1.68 Impact Factor
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