The genetic basis of tetrathionate respiration in Salmonella typhimurium.
ABSTRACT A range of bacteria are able to use tetrathionate as a terminal respiratory electron acceptor. Here we report the identification and characterization of the ttrRSBCA locus required for tetrathionate respiration in Salmonella typhimurium LT2a. The ttr genes are located within Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 at centisome 30.5. ttrA, ttrB and ttrC are the tetrathionate reductase structural genes. Sequence analysis suggests that TtrA contains a molybdopterin guanine dinucleotide cofactor and a [4Fe-4S] cluster, that TtrB binds four [4Fe-4S] clusters, and that TtrC is an integral membrane protein containing a quinol oxidation site. TtrA and TtrB are predicted to be anchored by TtrC to the periplasmic face of the cytoplasmic membrane implying a periplasmic site for tetrathionate reduction. It is inferred that the tetrathionate reductase, together with thiosulphate and polysulphide reductases, make up a previously unrecognized class of molybdopterin-dependent enzymes that carry out the reductive cleavage of sulphur-sulphur bonds. Cys-256 in TtrA is proposed to be the amino acid ligand to the molybdopterin cofactor. TtrS and TtrR are the sensor and response regulator components of a two-component regulatory system that is absolutely required for transcription of the ttrBCA operon. Expression of an active tetrathionate reduction system also requires the anoxia-responsive global transcriptional regulator Fnr. The ttrRSBCA gene cluster confers on Escherichia coli the ability to respire with tetrathionate as electron acceptor.
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ABSTRACT: Signal transduction through protein-protein interactions and protein modifications are the main mechanisms controlling many biological processes. Here we described the implementation of MedScan information extraction technology and Pathway Studio software (Ariadne Genomics Inc.) to create a Salmonella specific molecular interaction database. Using the database, we have constructed several signal transduction pathways in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi which causes Typhoid Fever, a major health threat especially in developing countries. S. Typhi has several pathogenicity islands that control rapid switching between different phenotypes including adhesion and colonization, invasion, intracellular survival, proliferation, and biofilm formation in response to environmental changes. Understanding of the detailed mechanism for S. Typhi survival in host cells is necessary for development of efficient detection and treatment of this pathogen. The constructed pathways were validated using publically available gene expression microarray data for Salmonella.Journal of integrative bioinformatics 01/2010; 7(1).
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ABSTRACT: Whole genome sequencing of non-H(2)S-producing Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Infantis isolates from poultry meat revealed a nonsense mutation in the phsA thiosulfate reductase gene and carriage of a CMY-2 ß-lactamase. The non-production of H(2)S might lead to the incorrect identification of S. enterica isolates carrying antimicrobial resistant genes.Journal of clinical microbiology 11/2012; · 4.16 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Foodborne disease caused by Salmonella represents a worldwide public health problem. In Europe, salmonellosis is still the second most commonly recorded zoonosis. Since the standard culture method for detecting Salmonella (ISO 6579:2002) requires up to 5 days to produce results, the need to develop rapid methods represents an important issue for the authorities and the producers. The aim of the present study was the in-house validation, according to ISO 16140, of an open-formula diagnostic real-time PCR for the detection of Salmonella in all the different meat categories reported in the EU Regulations relative to microbiological criteria for food safety. The assay employed specific primers and a probe target within the ttrRSBCA locus, which allows the tetrathionate respiration in Salmonella. Selectivity, relative accuracy, relative sensitivity and relative specificity were established by testing 110 bacterial strains and 175 various edible meat samples. Results showed 100 % selectivity, 100 % relative accuracy, 100 % relative sensitivity and 100 % relative specificity of the real-time PCR when compared to the standard culture method used as reference. In addition, in order to minimize the effect of the competitive micro-flora naturally present on meat samples, a highly nutritious and selective commercial medium (ONE Broth Salmonella, Oxoid) was evaluated in comparison with the classical non-selective pre-enrichment broth (buffered peptone water). Results demonstrated that the ONE Broth Salmonella medium increases the growth of Salmonella in the presence of competitive micro-flora.Food Analytical Methods 6(4). · 1.97 Impact Factor