The CAD triad hypothesis: a mapping between three moral emotions (contempt, anger, disgust) and three moral codes (community, autonomy, divinity).

Department of Psychology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia 19104-6196, USA.
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology (Impact Factor: 5.08). 04/1999; 76(4):574-86. DOI: 10.1037/0022-3514.76.4.574
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT It is proposed that 3 emotions--contempt, anger, and disgust--are typically elicited, across cultures, by violations of 3 moral codes proposed by R. A. Shweder and his colleagues (R. A. Shweder, N. C. Much, M. Mahapatra, & L. Park, 1997). The proposed alignment links anger to autonomy (individual rights violations), contempt to community (violation of communal codes including hierarchy), and disgust to divinity (violations of purity-sanctity). This is the CAD triad hypothesis. Students in the United States and Japan were presented with descriptions of situations that involve 1 of the types of moral violations and asked to assign either an appropriate facial expression (from a set of 6) or an appropriate word (contempt, anger, disgust, or their translations). Results generally supported the CAD triad hypothesis. Results were further confirmed by analysis of facial expressions actually made by Americans to the descriptions of these situations.

  • Source
    Psychological Inquiry 08/2014; 25(3-4):394-413. · 4.73 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The concept of ‘morality’ has since long been predominantly considered within the paradigm of developmental psychology, as quintessentially cognitive in nature. This paper reviews the studies that indicate different emerging trends, beyond the conventional cognitive developmental paradigm. It shows how the attention from ‘moral reasoning’ has shifted to ‘moral emotions’, and in the recent years researchers have moved toward investigating the interaction among the cognitive, emotional, and behavioral components of moral discourse. Also the review indicates how this domain is now not just a subject matter of interest for developmental psychologists studying the development of moral reasoning in children, but also for other fields. The article proposes to broaden the domain of morality, and to move beyond the conventional ‘harm’- ‘justice’ criteria, to include other culturally relevant aspects.
    Psychological Studies 09/2013; 58(3):326-334.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The purpose of the present study was to provide new knowledge on the relation between emotions and morality by investigating the relation between discrete emotions and moral content judgment in sports. The participants were 363 athletes (179 male, 184 female) who were involved in competitive sport at the time of data collection. Their age ranged from 18 to 23 years (M = 20.01, SD = 1.38). All participants were undergraduate sport-science students at a Greek university and were involved in several sports. The subjects filled in two questionnaires: Moral Content Judgment in Sport Questionnaire and Sport Emotion Questionnaire. The results supported a rather vague relationship between discrete emotions and moral content judgment.
    Ethics & Behavior 01/2014; 24(5):382-396. · 0.78 Impact Factor


Available from