Article

DIX domains of Dvl and axin are necessary for protein interactions and their ability to regulate beta-catenin stability.

Department of Biochemistry, Hiroshima University School of Medicine, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8551, Japan.
Molecular and Cellular Biology (Impact Factor: 5.04). 07/1999; 19(6):4414-22.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The N-terminal region of Dvl-1 (a mammalian Dishevelled homolog) shares 37% identity with the C-terminal region of Axin, and this related region is named the DIX domain. The functions of the DIX domains of Dvl-1 and Axin were investigated. By yeast two-hybrid screening, the DIX domain of Dvl-1 was found to interact with Dvl-3, a second mammalian Dishevelled relative. The DIX domains of Dvl-1 and Dvl-3 directly bound one another. Furthermore, Dvl-1 formed a homo-oligomer. Axin also formed a homo-oligomer, and its DIX domain was necessary. The N-terminal region of Dvl-1, including its DIX domain, bound to Axin directly. Dvl-1 inhibited Axin-promoted glycogen synthase kinase 3beta-dependent phosphorylation of beta-catenin, and the DIX domain of Dvl-1 was required for this inhibitory activity. Expression of Dvl-1 in L cells induced the nuclear accumulation of beta-catenin, and deletion of the DIX domain abolished this activity. Although expression of Axin in SW480 cells caused the degradation of beta-catenin and reduced the cell growth rate, expression of an Axin mutant that lacks the DIX domain did not affect the level of beta-catenin or the growth rate. These results indicate that the DIX domains of Dvl-1 and Axin are important for protein-protein interactions and that they are necessary for the ability of Dvl-1 and Axin to regulate the stability of beta-catenin.

0 Followers
 · 
71 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Robinow syndrome is a genetically heterogeneous disorder characterized by mesomelic limb shortening, genital hypoplasia, and distinctive facial features and for which both autosomal-recessive and autosomal-dominant inheritance patterns have been described. Causative variants in the non-canonical signaling gene WNT5A underlie a subset of autosomal-dominant Robinow syndrome (DRS) cases, but most individuals with DRS remain without a molecular diagnosis. We performed whole-exome sequencing in four unrelated DRS-affected individuals without coding mutations in WNT5A and found heterozygous DVL1 exon 14 mutations in three of them. Targeted Sanger sequencing in additional subjects with DRS uncovered DVL1 exon 14 mutations in five individuals, including a pair of monozygotic twins. In total, six distinct frameshift mutations were found in eight subjects, and all were heterozygous truncating variants within the penultimate exon of DVL1. In five families in which samples from unaffected parents were available, the variants were demonstrated to represent de novo mutations. All variant alleles are predicted to result in a premature termination codon within the last exon, escape nonsense-mediated decay (NMD), and most likely generate a C-terminally truncated protein with a distinct -1 reading-frame terminus. Study of the transcripts extracted from affected subjects' leukocytes confirmed expression of both wild-type and variant alleles, supporting the hypothesis that mutant mRNA escapes NMD. Genomic variants identified in our study suggest that truncation of the C-terminal domain of DVL1, a protein hypothesized to have a downstream role in the Wnt-5a non-canonical pathway, is a common cause of DRS. Copyright © 2015 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    The American Journal of Human Genetics 03/2015; 96(4). DOI:10.1016/j.ajhg.2015.02.015 · 10.99 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Axin and conductin/axin2 are structurally related inhibitors of Wnt/β-catenin signalling that promote degradation of β-catenin. Whereas axin is constitutively expressed, conductin is a Wnt target gene implicated in negative feedback regulation. Here we show that axin and conductin differ in their functional interaction with the upstream Wnt pathway component Dvl. Conductin shows reduced binding to Dvl2 compared to axin, and degradation of β-catenin by conductin is only poorly blocked by Dvl2. We propose that insensitivity to Dvl is an important feature of conductin's role as a negative feedback regulator of Wnt signalling.
    Journal of Cell Science 11/2014; 128(1). DOI:10.1242/jcs.159145 · 5.33 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Wnt/β-catenin signalling controls development and adult tissue homeostasis and causes cancer when inappropriately activated. In unstimulated cells, an Axin1-centred multi-protein complex phosphorylates the transcriptional co-activator β-catenin, marking it for degradation. Wnt signalling antagonizes β-catenin proteolysis, leading to its accumulation and target gene expression. How Wnt stimulation alters the size distribution, composition and activity of endogenous Axin1 complexes remains poorly understood. Here, we employed two-dimensional blue native/SDS-PAGE to analyse endogenous Axin1 and β-catenin complexes during Wnt signalling. We show that the size range of Axin1 complexes is conserved between species and remains largely unaffected by Wnt stimulation. We detect a striking Wnt-dependent, cytosolic accumulation of both non-phosphorylated and phosphorylated β-catenin within a 450 kDa Axin1-based complex and in a distinct, Axin1-free complex of 200 kDa. These results argue that during Wnt stimulation, phosphorylated β-catenin is released from the Axin1 complex but fails to undergo immediate degradation. Importantly, in APC-mutant cancer cells, the distribution of Axin1 and β-catenin complexes strongly resembles that of Wnt-stimulated cells. Our findings argue that Wnt signals and APC mutations interfere with the turnover of phosphorylated β-catenin. Furthermore, our results suggest that the accumulation of small-sized β-catenin complexes may serve as an indicator of Wnt pathway activity in primary cancer cells.
    Open Biology 11/2014; 4(11). DOI:10.1098/rsob.140120 · 4.56 Impact Factor

Preview

Download
0 Downloads
Available from