MRI anatomy of schizophrenia

Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
Biological Psychiatry (Impact Factor: 10.26). 06/1999; 45(9):1099-119. DOI: 10.1016/S0006-3223(99)00018-9
Source: PubMed


Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data have provided much evidence in support of our current view that schizophrenia is a brain disorder with altered brain structure, and consequently involving more than a simple disturbance in neurotransmission. This review surveys 118 peer-reviewed studies with control group from 1987 to May 1998. Most studies (81%) do not find abnormalities of whole brain/intracranial contents, while lateral ventricle enlargement is reported in 77%, and third ventricle enlargement in 67%. The temporal lobe was the brain parenchymal region with the most consistently documented abnormalities. Volume decreases were found in 62% of 37 studies of whole temporal lobe, and in 81% of 16 studies of the superior temporal gyrus (and in 100% with gray matter separately evaluated). Fully 77% of the 30 studies of the medial temporal lobe reported volume reduction in one or more of its constituent structures (hippocampus, amygdala, parahippocampal gyrus). Despite evidence for frontal lobe functional abnormalities, structural MRI investigations less consistently found abnormalities, with 55% describing volume reduction. It may be that frontal lobe volume changes are small, and near the threshold for MRI detection. The parietal and occipital lobes were much less studied; about half of the studies showed positive findings. Most studies of cortical gray matter (86%) found volume reductions were not diffuse, but more pronounced in certain areas. About two thirds of the studies of subcortical structures of thalamus, corpus callosum and basal ganglia (which tend to increase volume with typical neuroleptics), show positive findings, as do almost all (91%) studies of cavum septi pellucidi (CSP). Most data were consistent with a developmental model, but growing evidence was compatible also with progressive, neurodegenerative features, suggesting a "two-hit" model of schizophrenia, for which a cellular hypothesis is discussed. The relationship of clinical symptoms to MRI findings is reviewed, as is the growing evidence suggesting structural abnormalities differ in affective (bipolar) psychosis and schizophrenia.

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Available from: Martha E Shenton, Jul 22, 2014
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    • "Sensory processing deficits are commonly observed in schizophrenia (SZ) and are thought to play a role in a variety of its symptoms , including perceptual distortions (Plourde and Picton, 1990) and impaired language processing (Javitt, 2009; Turetsky et al., 2009). These deficits have been associated with reduced gray matter volume in the superior temporal gyrus (McCarley et al., 1999) and a reduction in dendritic spines in the auditory cortex (Sweet et al., 2009). Although the auditory cortex may be part of the neural substrates contributing to perceptual deficits in SZ patients, the underlying neurobiological bases are not fully understood. "
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    ABSTRACT: The auditory steady state response (ASSR), which measures the ability of neural ensembles to entrain to rhythmic auditory stimuli, has been used in human EEG studies to assess sensory processing and electrical oscillatory deficits. Patients with schizophrenia (SZ) show a deficit in ASSR at 40 Hz, and therefore this may be a useful biomarker to study this disorder. we used ASSR recordings from the primary auditory (A1) cortex, hippocampus, and vertex EEG sites in awake behaving rats to determine whether pharmacological impairment of excitatory or inhibitory neurotransmission mimic ASSR abnormalities in SZ. We found the most robust response to auditory stimuli in the A1 cortex, in line with previous studies suggesting this region is the primary generator of the ASSR in humans. Acute MK-801 (0.1 mg/kg i.p.) increased A1 cortex intertrial coherence (ITC) during ASSR at 20 and 40 Hz. Chronic MK-801 (21 days exposure at this daily dose) had no significant effect on 40 Hz ASSR. Furthermore, we found no effect of acute or chronic picrotoxin (PTX, a GABA-A antagonist) on ITC. Our data indicate that acute N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonism increases synchronous activity in the A1 cortex in a frequency-specific manner, supporting the widely held view that acute NMDA antagonism augments gamma oscillations. Thus, rodent ASSR could be a valuable method to study the cortical ability to support synchronous activity at specific frequencies. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.
    The International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology 01/2015; 18(7). DOI:10.1093/ijnp/pyu118 · 4.01 Impact Factor
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    • "pattern of reduced cortical thickness in the prefrontal regions, temporal regions, superior parietal gyrus, hippocampus and cingulate gyrus (Narr et al., 2005; Schultz et al., 2010b; Kubota et al., 2011; van Haren et al., 2011). It is well established that brain structural changes are important for understanding the pathophysiology of schizophrenia (McCarley et al., 1999; Shenton et al., 2001). Multiple overlapping regions were found using grey matter volume and thickness measures such as the superior temporal and prefrontal areas. "
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    ABSTRACT: Grey matter volume and cortical thickness are the two most widely used measures for detecting grey matter morphometric changes in various diseases such as schizophrenia. However, these two measures only share partial overlapping regions in identifying morphometric changes. Few studies have investigated the contributions of the potential factors to the differences of grey matter volume and cortical thickness. To investigate this question, 3T magnetic resonance images from 22 patients with schizophrenia and 20 well-matched healthy controls were chosen for analyses. Grey matter volume and cortical thickness were measured by VBM and Freesurfer. Grey matter volume results were then rendered onto the surface template of Freesurfer to compare the differences from cortical thickness in anatomical locations. Discrepancy regions of the grey matter volume and thickness where grey matter volume significantly decreased but without corresponding evidence of cortical thinning involved the rostral middle frontal, precentral, lateral occipital and superior frontal gyri. Subsequent region-of-interest analysis demonstrated that changes in surface area, grey/white matter intensity contrast and curvature accounted for the discrepancies. Our results suggest that the differences between grey matter volume and thickness could be jointly driven by surface area, grey/white matter intensity contrast and curvature. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging 12/2014; 231(2). DOI:10.1016/j.pscychresns.2014.12.004 · 2.42 Impact Factor
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    • "Extant morphometric studies have demonstrated cerebral deficits in schizophrenia patients. Adults with schizophrenia show volumetric reductions in the prefrontal cortex, superior temporal gyrus, and medial temporal lobe (McCarley et al., 1999; Pearlson and Marsh, 1999; Kasai et al., 2002). Additionally, a considerable proportion of structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) research in schizophrenia has focused on investigating the relationship between regional gray matter (GM) volumes and clinical manifestations of the disorder. "
    Jin Young Park · Hae-Jeong Park · Dae-Jin Kim · Jae-Jin Kim ·
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    ABSTRACT: The development of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has provided information about microstructural changes in the brain. Most DTI studies have focused on white matter. Few DTI studies have examined the gray matter in schizophrenia and, to date, there has been no attempt to identify the relationship between water diffusivity and symptom severity in schizophrenia. The present study aimed to examine microstructural deficits in the dorsal prefrontal cortex and temporal cortex in schizophrenia patients using fractional anisotropy and water diffusivity. This study also explored the relationship between DTI measurements and psychotic symptoms. Magnetic resonance imaging and DTI were used to study 19 schizophrenia patients and 19 healthy controls. Fractional anisotropy, axial diffusivity, radial diffusivity, and regional volumes were measured in the prefrontal cortex and temporal cortex. On DTI measurements, patients showed increased axial and radial diffusivity in the prefrontal cortex and temporal cortex, but they did not demonstrate any difference in fractional anisotropy and regional volumes. Additionally, axial and radial diffusivity were significantly correlated with positive symptom scores in all regions of interest. These results indicate that water diffusivity measurements, including axial and radial diffusivity, can be used to identify microstructural changes in the gray matter in schizophrenia that may be related to symptom severity.
    Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging 10/2014; 224(1). DOI:10.1016/j.pscychresns.2014.07.003 · 2.42 Impact Factor
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