Inhibitor resistant class A beta-lactamases.
ABSTRACT Beta-lactamase inhibitors (clavulanic acid, tazobactam, and sulbactam) greatly enhance the therapeutic efficacy of their partner antibiotics (amoxacillin, ampicillin, piperacillin, and ticarcillin) against common enteric and non-enteric organisms possessing class A beta-lactamases. Unfortunately, the number of class A enzymes being discovered that are resistant to these combinations is increasingly rapidly. The TEM and SHV class A beta-lactamases resistant to inhibitors have point mutations in critical amino acids important for catalysis. Compared to the wild type beta-lactamase, inhibitor resistant enzymes are inefficient at hydrolyzing benzylpenicillin, aminopenicillins, and cephalosporins. Nevertheless, hyper-production of these enzymes resulting from mutations in the promoter region can confer substantial levels of resistance. Understanding the microbiologic and kinetic properties of these inhibitor resistant class A beta-lactamases can lead to the design of more potent beta-lactam compounds as well as more effective inhibitors.
- SourceAvailable from: Magdalena A Taracila[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Beta-lactamase-mediated antibiotic resistance continues to challenge the contemporary treatment of serious bacterial infections. The KPC-2 beta-lactamase, a rapidly emerging gram-negative resistance determinant, hydrolyzes all commercially available beta-lactams, including carbapenems and beta-lactamase inhibitors; the amino acid sequence requirements responsible for this versatility are not yet known. To explore the bases of beta-lactamase activity, we conducted site saturation mutagenesis at Ambler position 237. Only the T237S variant of the KPC-2 beta-lactamase expressed in Escherichia coli DH10B maintained MICs equivalent to those of the wild type (WT) against all of the beta-lactams tested, including carbapenems. In contrast, the T237A variant produced in E. coli DH10B exhibited elevated MICs for only ampicillin, piperacillin, and the beta-lactam-beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations. Residue 237 also plays a novel role in inhibitor discrimination, as 11 of 19 variants exhibit a clavulanate-resistant, sulfone-susceptible phenotype. We further showed that the T237S variant displayed substrate kinetics similar to those of the WT KPC-2 enzyme. Consistent with susceptibility testing, the T237A variant demonstrated a lower k(cat)/K(m) for imipenem, cephalothin, and cefotaxime; interestingly, the most dramatic reduction was with cefotaxime. The decreases in catalytic efficiency were driven by both elevated K(m) values and decreased k(cat) values compared to those of the WT enzyme. Moreover, the T237A variant manifested increased K(i)s for clavulanic acid, sulbactam, and tazobactam, while the T237S variant displayed K(i)s similar to those of the WT. To explain these findings, a molecular model of T237A was constructed and this model suggested that (i) the hydroxyl side chain of T237 plays an important role in defining the substrate profile of the KPC-2 beta-lactamase and (ii) hydrogen bonding between the hydroxyl side chain of T237 and the sp(2)-hybridized carboxylate of imipenem may not readily occur in the T237A variant. This stringent requirement for selected cephalosporinase and carbapenemase activity and the important role of T237 in inhibitor discrimination in KPC-2 are central considerations in the future design of beta-lactam antibiotics and inhibitors.Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 07/2010; 54(7):2867-77. · 4.57 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Since the introduction of penicillin, beta-lactam antibiotics have been the antimicrobial agents of choice. Unfortunately, the efficacy of these life-saving antibiotics is significantly threatened by bacterial beta-lactamases. beta-Lactamases are now responsible for resistance to penicillins, extended-spectrum cephalosporins, monobactams, and carbapenems. In order to overcome beta-lactamase-mediated resistance, beta-lactamase inhibitors (clavulanate, sulbactam, and tazobactam) were introduced into clinical practice. These inhibitors greatly enhance the efficacy of their partner beta-lactams (amoxicillin, ampicillin, piperacillin, and ticarcillin) in the treatment of serious Enterobacteriaceae and penicillin-resistant staphylococcal infections. However, selective pressure from excess antibiotic use accelerated the emergence of resistance to beta-lactam-beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations. Furthermore, the prevalence of clinically relevant beta-lactamases from other classes that are resistant to inhibition is rapidly increasing. There is an urgent need for effective inhibitors that can restore the activity of beta-lactams. Here, we review the catalytic mechanisms of each beta-lactamase class. We then discuss approaches for circumventing beta-lactamase-mediated resistance, including properties and characteristics of mechanism-based inactivators. We next highlight the mechanisms of action and salient clinical and microbiological features of beta-lactamase inhibitors. We also emphasize their therapeutic applications. We close by focusing on novel compounds and the chemical features of these agents that may contribute to a "second generation" of inhibitors. The goal for the next 3 decades will be to design inhibitors that will be effective for more than a single class of beta-lactamases.Clinical microbiology reviews 01/2010; 23(1):160-201. · 14.69 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The clinical Klebsiella pneumoniae INSRA6884 strain exhibited nonsusceptibility to all penicillins tested (MICs of 64 to >2,048 μg/ml). The MICs of penicillins were weakly reduced by clavulanate (from 2,048 to 512 μg/ml), and tazobactam restored piperacillin susceptibility. Molecular characterization identified the genes bla(GES-7) and a new β-lactamase gene, bla(SHV-107), which encoded an enzyme that differed from SHV-1 by the amino acid substitutions Leu35Gln and Thr235Ala. The SHV-107-producing Escherichia coli strain exhibited only a β-lactam resistance phenotype with respect to amoxicillin, ticarcillin, and amoxicillin-clavulanate combination. The kinetic parameters of the purified SHV-107 enzyme revealed a high affinity for penicillins. However, catalytic efficiency for these antibiotics was lower for SHV-107 than for SHV-1. No hydrolysis was detected against oxyimino-β-lactams. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) for clavulanic acid was 9-fold higher for SHV-107 than for SHV-1, but the inhibitory effects of tazobactam were unchanged. Molecular dynamics simulation suggested that the Thr235Ala substitution affects the accommodation of clavulanate in the binding site and therefore its inhibitory activity.Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 11/2011; 56(2):1042-6. · 4.57 Impact Factor