Correlation of c-myc overexpression and amplification with progression of preneoplastic liver lesions to malignancy in the poorly susceptible Wistar rat strain.
ABSTRACT Persistent liver nodules (PNs) and hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) induced in F344 rats by the resistant hepatocyte (RH) model exhibit c-myc overexpression and amplification. The role of these changes in progression of PN was investigated in nodules with different propensities to evolve to HCC in resistant Wistar rats and, for comparison, in susceptible F344 rats. Initiation of rats with diethylnitrosamine was followed by selection with 2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF) plus partial hepatectomy (RH groups). Two additional Wistar rat groups received a second AAF treatment without (RH+AAF) and with a necrogenic dose of CCl4 (RH+AAF/CCl4) 15 d after selection. The number to liver ratio and volume of glutathione-s-transferase placental form-positive lesions were lower in the Wistar than the F344 RH groups 9 and 32 wk after initiation and increased after a second AAF cycle treatment with and without CCl4. DNA synthesis in glutathione-s-transferase placental form-positive lesions was low in Wistar RH group at 9 wk and was stimulated by additional AAF treatments. HCCs developed at 57-60 wk in F344 RH, Wistar RH+AAF, and RH+AAF/CCl4 rats. Tumor incidence and multiplicity were lower in RH+AAF rats than in RH+AAF/CCl4 and F344 rats. At 32 wk, PN exhibited c-myc overexpression that increased from RH to RH+AAF rats and to RH+AAF/CCl4 Wistar rats. This was associated with c-myc amplification in Wistar RH+AAF/CCl4 rats. These results showed correlation of c-myc overexpression and amplification with nodule propensity to progress to HCC in poorly susceptible Wistar rats and suggested a possible genetic mechanism for susceptibility to hepatocarcinogenesis. The experimental system used in this work may be a valuable tool for studies on molecular mechanisms underlying liver growth and tumorigenesis supported by c-myc overexpression.
Article: Hepatocellular carcinoma as a complex polygenic disease. Interpretive analysis of recent developments on genetic predisposition.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The different frequency of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in humans at risk suggests a polygenic predisposition. However, detection of genetic variants is difficult in genetically heterogeneous human population. Studies on mouse and rat models identified 7 hepatocarcinogenesis susceptibility (Hcs) and 2 resistance (Hcr) loci in mice, and 7 Hcs and 9 Hcr loci in rats, controlling multiplicity and size of neoplastic liver lesions. Six liver neoplastic nodule remodeling (Lnnr) loci control number and volume of re-differentiating lesions in rat. A Hcs locus, with high phenotypic effects, and various epistatic gene-gene interactions were identified in rats, suggesting a genetic model of predisposition to hepatocarcinogenesis with different subset of low-penetrance genes, at play in different subsets of population, and a major locus. This model is in keeping with human HCC epidemiology. Several putative modifier genes in rodents, deregulated in HCC, are located in chromosomal segments syntenic to sites of chromosomal aberrations in humans, suggesting possible location of predisposing loci. Resistance to HCC is associated with lower genomic instability and downregulation of cell cycle key genes in preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions. p16(INK4A) upregulation occurs in susceptible and resistant rat lesions. p16(INK4A)-induced growth restraint was circumvented by Hsp90/Cdc37 chaperons and E2f4 nuclear export by Crm1 in susceptible, but not in resistant rats and human HCCs with better prognosis. Thus, protective mechanisms seem to be modulated by HCC modifiers, and differences in their efficiency influence the susceptibility to hepatocarcinogenesis and probably the prognosis of human HCC.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 05/2006; 1765(2):126-47. · 4.66 Impact Factor
Article: Frequent loss of heterozygosity at the Hcr1 (hepatocarcinogenesis resistance) locus on chromosome 10 in primary hepatocellular carcinomas from LFF1 rat strain.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Hepatocarcinogenesis sensitivity (Hcs1, 2) and resistance (Hcr1-3) loci have been identified by linkage analysis on rat chromosomes 7 and 1, and 10, 4, and 8, respectively. Cytogenetic studies documented deletions on chromosomes 3 and 6 of neoplastic rat hepatocytes. Hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) were produced in F1 hybrid rats between Long-Evans (LE) and Fisher 344 (F344) rats. Scanning of the above chromosomes for loss of heterozygosity (LOH) showed allelic imbalance (AI) at multiple regions on chromosomes 6, 7, and 10q. Detailed deletion mapping of chromosome 10 localized a putative suppressor Hcr1 gene to within a 3.2-cM interval flanked by D10Rat51 and D10Rat121. Two other distinct regions with frequent AIs were found inside the Hcr1 locus, at marker loci including DNaseI and Mrp genes, and in a segment including 4 consecutive markers (D10Rat64, D10Rat182, D10Rat113, D10Rat216). In 40% of HCCs, AI was seen at the p53 locus. AI on chromosome 7 occurred at the Hcs1 locus, where is located c-myc, which is amplified in HCCs, suggesting allelic gain. Most AIs occurred in poorly/moderately differentiated carcinomas, and a few events were seen in well-differentiated tumors on chromosomes 7 and 10. These data suggest that alteration of a cluster of oncosuppressor genes on 10q is important for HCC progression. The existence of AI on segments of rat chromosomes 6, 7, and 10, syntenic to chromosomal segments of human HCCs where chromosomal gains or deletions occur, suggests a commonality of some molecular events in the pathogenesis of HCCs in rats and humans. Our map provides information toward cloning putative oncosuppressor genes associated with this carcinoma.Hepatology 06/2001; 33(5):1110-7. · 11.66 Impact Factor
Article: Deregulation of signalling pathways in prognostic subtypes of hepatocellular carcinoma: novel insights from interspecies comparison.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Hepatocellular carcinoma is a frequent and fatal disease. Recent researches on rodent models and human hepatocarcinogenesis contributed to unravel the molecular mechanisms of hepatocellular carcinoma dedifferentiation and progression, and allowed the discovery of several alterations underlying the deregulation of cell cycle and signalling pathways. This review provides an interpretive analysis of the results of these studies. Mounting evidence emphasises the role of up-regulation of RAS/ERK, P13K/AKT, IKK/NF-kB, WNT, TGF-ß, NOTCH, Hedgehog, and Hippo signalling pathways as well as of aberrant proteasomal activity in hepatocarcinogenesis. Signalling deregulation often occurs in preneoplastic stages of rodent and human hepatocarcinogenesis and progressively increases in carcinomas, being most pronounced in more aggressive tumours. Numerous changes in signalling cascades are involved in the deregulation of carbohydrate, lipid, and methionine metabolism, which play a role in the maintenance of the transformed phenotype. Recent studies on the role of microRNAs in signalling deregulation, and on the interplay between signalling pathways led to crucial achievements in the knowledge of the network of signalling cascades, essential for the development of adjuvant therapies of liver cancer. Furthermore, the analysis of the mechanisms involved in signalling deregulation allowed the identification of numerous putative prognostic markers and novel therapeutic targets of specific hepatocellular carcinoma subtypes associated with different biologic and clinical features. This is of prime importance for the selection of patient subgroups that are most likely to obtain clinical benefit and, hence, for successful development of targeted therapies for liver cancer.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 08/2012; 1826(1):215-37. · 4.66 Impact Factor