Housing placement and subsequent days homeless among formerly homeless adults with mental illness.
ABSTRACT The study examined the influence of group or individual housing placement and consumer characteristics on the number of days subsequently homeless among formerly homeless mentally ill persons.
A total of 303 homeless shelter residents with severe mental illness were screened for dangerousness, 118 were randomly assigned to either independent apartment or staffed group living sites, and 110 were followed for 18 months. Study participants' sociodemographic characteristics, diagnosis, and residential preferences and the residential recommendations made by clinicians were measured at baseline.
Overall, 76 percent of the study participants were housed at the end of the 18-month follow-up period, although 27 percent had experienced at least one episode of homelessness during the period. The number of days homeless was greater for individuals assigned to independent apartments than for those placed in staffed group homes, but only for members of minority groups. Substance abuse was the strongest individual-level predictor of days homeless. Individuals whom clinicians identified as needing group living experienced more days homeless, irrespective of the type of housing they received. Consumers who stated a strong preference for independent living had more days homeless than those who were amenable to staffed group homes.
Although consumers more frequently prefer independent living, placement in staffed group housing resulted in somewhat fewer days homeless for some groups of consumers. Further experience of homelessness by formerly homeless mentally ill individuals may be reduced by providing effective substance abuse treatment and by paying special attention to consumers identified by clinicians to be at particular risk for housing loss.
Article: The prevalence of mental disorders among the homeless in western countries: systematic review and meta-regression analysis.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: There are well over a million homeless people in Western Europe and North America, but reliable estimates of the prevalence of major mental disorders among this population are lacking. We undertook a systematic review of surveys of such disorders in homeless people. We searched for surveys of the prevalence of psychotic illness, major depression, alcohol and drug dependence, and personality disorder that were based on interviews of samples of unselected homeless people. We searched bibliographic indexes, scanned reference lists, and corresponded with authors. We explored potential sources of any observed heterogeneity in the estimates by meta-regression analysis, including geographical region, sample size, and diagnostic method. Twenty-nine eligible surveys provided estimates obtained from 5,684 homeless individuals from seven countries. Substantial heterogeneity was observed in prevalence estimates for mental disorders among the studies (all Cochran's chi(2) significant at p < 0.001 and all I(2) > 85%). The most common mental disorders were alcohol dependence, which ranged from 8.1% to 58.5%, and drug dependence, which ranged from 4.5% to 54.2%. For psychotic illness, the prevalence ranged from 2.8% to 42.3%, with similar findings for major depression. The prevalence of alcohol dependence was found to have increased over recent decades. Homeless people in Western countries are substantially more likely to have alcohol and drug dependence than the age-matched general population in those countries, and the prevalences of psychotic illnesses and personality disorders are higher. Models of psychiatric and social care that can best meet these mental health needs requires further investigation.PLoS Medicine 01/2009; 5(12):e225. · 16.27 Impact Factor
[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Homelessness is a widespread problem in the United States. The primary goal of this systematic review is to provide guidance in the development and organization of programs to improve the health of homeless people. MEDLINE, CINAHL, HealthStar, PsycINFO, Sociological Abstracts, and Social Services Abstracts databases were searched from their inception through July 2004 using the following terms: homeless, homeless persons, and homelessness. References of key articles were also searched. 4564 abstracts were screened, and 258 articles underwent full review. Seventy-three studies conducted from 1988 to 2004 met inclusion criteria (use of an intervention, use of a comparison group, and the reporting of health-related outcomes). Two authors independently abstracted data from studies and assigned quality ratings using explicit criteria. Forty-five studies were rated good or fair quality. For homeless people with mental illness, case management linked to other services was effective in improving psychiatric symptoms, and assertive case management was effective in decreasing psychiatric hospitalizations and increasing outpatient contacts. For homeless people with substance abuse problems, case management resulted in greater decreases in substance use than did usual care. For homeless people with latent tuberculosis, monetary incentives improved adherence rates. Although a number of studies comparing an intervention to usual care were positive, studies comparing two interventions frequently found no significant difference in outcomes. Coordinated treatment programs for homeless adults with mental illness or substance abuse usually result in better health outcomes than usual care. Health care for homeless people should be provided through such programs whenever possible. Research is lacking on interventions for youths, families, and conditions other than mental illness or substance abuse.American Journal of Preventive Medicine 12/2005; 29(4):311-9. · 4.04 Impact Factor
Article: Adherence to treatment with antipsychotic medication and health care costs among Medicaid beneficiaries with schizophrenia.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The authors' goal was to evaluate the relationship between adherence to treatment with antipsychotic medication and health expenditures. A secondary objective was to identify risk factors predictive of nonadherence. Data included Medicaid eligibility and claims data from 1998 to 2000 for San Diego County, Calif. Pharmacy records were used to assess adherence to treatment with antipsychotic medication according to the cumulative possession ratio (the number of days medications were available for consumption divided by the number of days subjects were eligible for Medi-Cal). Regression models were used to examine risk factors, hospitalizations, and costs associated with nonadherence, partial adherence, adherence, and excess fills of antipsychotic medication. Forty-one percent of Medicaid beneficiaries with schizophrenia were found to be adherent to treatment with their antipsychotic medications: 24% were nonadherent, 16% were partially adherent, and 19% were excess fillers. Rates of psychiatric hospitalization were lower for those who were adherent (14%) than for those who were nonadherent (35%), partially adherent (24%), or had excess fills (25%). Rates of medical hospitalization were lower for those who were adherent (7%) than for those who were nonadherent (13%) or had excess fills (12%). Those who were adherent had significantly lower hospital costs than the other groups; pharmacy costs were higher among those who were adherent than among those who were nonadherent or partially adherent and were highest for excess fillers. Total costs for excess fillers (14,044 US dollars) were substantially higher than total costs for any other group. Despite the widespread use of atypical antipsychotic medications, alarmingly high rates of both underuse and excessive filling of antipsychotic prescriptions were found in Medicaid beneficiaries with schizophrenia. The high rates of antipsychotic nonadherence and associated negative consequences suggest interventions on multiple levels.American Journal of Psychiatry 05/2004; 161(4):692-9. · 12.54 Impact Factor