Reduction of alcohol induced sleep time in albino mice by potentized Nux vomica prepared with 90% ethanol.
ABSTRACT Male adult albino mice were administered potentized Nux vomica 30 c (Nux v). The drug was mixed with sterile distilled water at 0.05 ml/2 ml water and given at 0.05 ml/individual. Control consisted of blank ethanol solution. Ethanolic extract from the seeds of Strychnos nuxvomica L was mixed with 90% ethanol 1:100 and sonicated for 30 s at 20 KHz. This was further diluted and sonicated in 30 steps to produce Nux v 30 c. Six hours after treatment, mice were given 25% ethanol i.p. at 4 g/kg body wt. The duration of sleep time starting from the loss of righting reflex until its restoration was recorded for each mouse. The duration of sleep time with ethanol was recorded in four sessions for the same group of mice with an interval of 10 d between sessions. Treatments: session 1 with control solution, 2 with Nux v (oral), 3 with control solution and 4 with Nux v (i.p.). Nux v (oral) produced the shortest sleep time as compared to other treatments which did not differ from each other significantly with respect to sleep time. In another experiment Nux v 30 c was prepared with distilled water and pure absolute ethanol by the above process of successive dilution and sonication. These two preparations together with Nux v 30 c, prepared with 90% ethanol, were tested on mice for their effect on alcohol-induced sleep time. Only Nux v 30 c prepared with 90% ethanol was effective in reducing the sleep time in mice. It is concluded that the solution structure of ethanol/water mixture carries the specificity of the Nux v at ultra high dilution. It is further concluded that the effect is mediated through oral receptors.
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ABSTRACT: L’opera ‘Farmacologia delle alte diluizioni’ rappresenta un originale contributo alla letteratura sulla questione omeopatica, di notevole interesse anche alla luce della crescente diffusione di questa disciplina nel mondo medico e del favore che riscontra presso il pubblico. Questa è l'edizione italiana del libro dei Sukul, tradotta e commentata da Paolo Bellavite, che ha scritto anche un ampio capitolo introduttivo di rassegna sullo stato delle conoscenze al tempo.Edited by Paolo Bellavite, 01/2005; Salus Infirmorum, Padova, 2005.
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ABSTRACT: Recently, the renal injury caused by Semen Strychni and its major toxic constituents, strychnine and brucine, was reported in many clinical cases. Hence, this study was conducted to investigate the renal injury induced by Semen Strychni and the protective effects of Radix Glycyrrhizae and Rhizoma Ligustici. The protective mechanisms were related to the comparative toxicokinetics of strychnine and brucine. Serum and urine uric acid and creatinine were used as renal function markers to evaluate the condition of kidney, and renal injury was directly reflected by histopathological changes. Compared with rats in blank group and protective herb groups, rats in Semen Strychni high-dose group showed significant differences in the results of renal function markers, and various glomerular and tubular degenerations were found in the histopathological study. The decreased AUC (only strychnine) and Cmax, the increased Tmax by Radix Glycyrrhizae and the decreased T1/2 by Radix Glycyrrhizae and Rhizoma Ligustici were found in model groups. Results indicated that high dose of Semen Strychni might induce renal injury. Radix Glycyrrhizae and Rhizoma Ligustici might work together and have effects on the elimination of strychnine and brucine. The protective effects of Radix Glycyrrhizae might also be explained by the slow absorption of the alkaloids.Food and chemical toxicology: an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association 04/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.fct.2014.03.028 · 2.61 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In previous nephrotoxicity metabonomic studies, several potential biomarkers were found and evaluated. To investigate the relationship between the nephrotoxicity biomarkers and the therapeutic role of Radix Glycyrrhizae extract on Semen Strychni-induced renal failure, twelve typical biomarkers are selected and a simple LC–MS method has been developed and validated. Citric acid, guanidinosuccinic acid, taurine, guanidinoacetic acid, uric acid, creatinine, hippuric acid, xanthurenic acid, kynurenic acid, 3-indoxyl sulfate, indole-3-acetic acid and phenaceturic acid were separated by a Phenomenex Luna C18 column and a methanol/water (5 mM ammonium acetate) gradient program with a runtime of 20 min. The prepared calibration curves showed good linearity with regression coefficients all above 0.9913. The absolute recoveries of analytes from serum and urine were all more than 70.4%. With the developed method, analytes were successfully determined in serum and urine samples within 52 days. Results showed that guanidinosuccinic acid, guanidinoacetic acid, 3-indoxyl sulfate and indole-3-acetic acid (only in urine) were more sensitive than the conventional renal function markers in evaluating the therapeutic role of Radix Glycyrrhizae extract on Semen Strychni-induced renal failure. The method could be further used in predicting and monitoring renal failure cause by other reasons in the following researches. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reservedJournal of Separation Science 05/2014; 37(9-10). DOI:10.1002/jssc.201400053 · 2.59 Impact Factor