Although potent antiretroviral therapy can control infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), a long-lived reservoir of infectious virus persists in CD4+ T cells. We investigated this viral reservoir by measuring the levels of cell-associated viral DNA and messenger RNA (mRNA) that are essential for HIV-1 replication. Approximately every 6 months, we obtained samples of peripheral-blood mononuclear cells from five men with long-standing HIV-1 infection who had had undetectable levels of plasma HIV-1 RNA for 20 months or more during treatment with potent antiretroviral drugs.
Before treatment, plasma levels of HIV-1 RNA correlated with the levels of cell-associated unintegrated HIV-1 DNA and unspliced viral mRNA. After treatment, plasma levels of HIV-1 RNA fell by more than 2.7 log to undetectable levels. The decrease in cell-associated integrated and unintegrated HIV-1 DNA and mRNA occurred in two phases. The first phase occurred during the initial 500 days of treatment and was characterized by substantial decreases in the levels of DNA and mRNA, but not to undetectable levels. The concentrations of cell-associated unintegrated viral DNA, integrated proviral DNA, and unspliced viral mRNA decreased by 1.25 to 1.46 log. The second phase occurred during the subsequent 300 days or more of treatment and was characterized by a plateau in the levels of HIV-1 DNA and unspliced mRNA. After an initial rapid decline, the ratio of unspliced to multiply spliced viral mRNA (a measure of active viral transcription) stabilized and remained greater than zero at each measurement.
Despite treatment with potent antiretroviral drugs and the suppression of plasma HIV-1 RNA to undetectable levels for 20 months or more, HIV-1 transcription persists in peripheral-blood mononuclear cells. Unless the quasi-steady state levels of HIV DNA and mRNA eventually disappear with longer periods of therapy, these findings suggest that HIV-1 infection cannot be eradicated with current treatments.
"Monocytes can remain productively infected with HIV during cART treatment [54–56] and are likely to represent a source of HIV found within the brain of HIV-infected persons treated with cART. HIV-infected monocytes that enter the brain are thought to give rise to perivascular macrophages which are commonly infected with HIV. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) extends the lifespan and the quality of life for HIV-infected persons but does not completely eliminate chronic immune activation and inflammation. The low level of chronic immune activation persisting during cART-treated HIV infection is associated with the development of diseases which usually occur in the elderly. Although T-cell activation has been extensively examined in the context of cART-treated HIV infection, monocyte activation is only beginning to be recognized as an important source of inflammation in this context. Here we examine markers and sources of monocyte activation during cART-treated HIV infection and discuss the role of monocytes during cardiovascular disease, HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder, and innate immune aging.
Research Journal of Immunology 06/2014; 2014:569819. DOI:10.1155/2014/569819
"The total drop in plasma viremia on ART, depending on pre-therapy values, is thus 3–6 log10. Remarkably, CA HIV RNA in PBMC and lymph nodes follows similar decay kinetics upon ART initiation, with a rapid initial decline towards a plateau, but the drop is only 1–2 log10, as shown by several groups (Figure 3) [12,59,70,94-98]. Plasma viremia reflects a balance between virus production and virus clearance, and because clearance of free virus in HIV infection was shown to be very rapid, with a half-life in the order of minutes to hours [99,100], plasma viremia is considered to be directly proportional to virus production. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In most HIV-infected individuals adherent to modern antiretroviral therapy (ART), plasma viremia stays undetectable by clinical assays and therefore, additional virological markers for monitoring and predicting therapy responses and for measuring the degree of HIV persistence in patients on ART should be identified. For the above purposes, quantitation of cell-associated HIV biomarkers could provide a useful alternative to measurements of viral RNA in plasma. This review concentrates on cell-associated (CA) HIV RNA with the emphasis on its use as a virological biomarker. We discuss the significance of CA HIV RNA as a prognostic marker of disease progression in untreated patients and as an indicator of residual virus replication and the size of the dynamic viral reservoir in ART-treated patients. Potential value of this biomarker for monitoring the response to ART and to novel HIV eradication therapies is highlighted.
"The provirus can also remain dormant for years in memory T-cells, greatly contributing to the difficulty in eradicating viral infection. In fact, it has been shown that very low levels of HIV-1 transcription can persist in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in patients receiving antiretroviral therapy, exacerbating the problem of emerging drug-resistant viral strains , , , . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: HIV-1 integrase (IN) is an important target for contemporary antiretroviral drug design research. Historically, efforts at inactivating the enzyme have focused upon blocking its active site. However, it has become apparent that new classes of allosteric inhibitors will be necessary to advance the antiretroviral field in light of the emergence of viral strains resistant to contemporary clinically used IN drugs. In this study we have characterized the importance of a close network of IN residues, distant from the active site, as important for the obligatory multimerization of the enzyme and viral replication as a whole. Specifically, we have determined that the configuration of six residues within a highly symmetrical region at the IN dimerization interface, composed of a four-tiered aromatic interaction flanked by two salt bridges, significantly contributes to proper HIV-1 replication. Additionally, we have utilized a quantitative luminescence assay to examine IN oligomerization and have determined that there is a very low tolerance for amino acid substitutions along this region. Even conservative residue substitutions negatively impacted IN multimerization, resulting in an inactive viral enzyme and a non-replicative virus. We have shown that there is a very low tolerance for amino acid variation at the symmetrical dimeric interface region characterized in this study, and therefore drugs designed to target the amino acid network detailed here could be expected to yield a significantly reduced number of drug-resistant escape mutations compared to contemporary clinically-evaluated antiretrovirals.
PLoS ONE 09/2012; 7(9):e45177. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0045177 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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