Personality disorders in dysthymia and major depression.
ABSTRACT The purpose of the present study was to investigate the comorbidity of personality disorders in patients with primary dysthymia compared to those with episodic major depression.
A total of 177 out-patients with primary dysthymia and 187 outpatients with episodic major depression were administered a structured diagnostic interview for DSM-III-R Axis II disorders. In addition, all of these patients completed the BDI, and those with the appropriate level of education also completed the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI).
A significantly higher proportion of dysthymic patients than patients with major depression met the criteria for a personality disorder, for borderline, histrionic, avoidant, dependent, self-defeating types and for personality disorders of clusters B and C. Further analysis revealed that the above differences were mainly due to the subgroup of patients with 'early-onset dysthymia'. Finally, patients with a personality disorder, both dysthymics and those with major depression, had significantly higher scores on the BDI and on the majority of the MMPI scales compared to those without a personality disorder.
The data indicated that (i) dysthymia--mainly that of early onset--is associated with significantly higher personality disorder comorbidity than episodic major depression, and (ii) the presence of a personality disorder is related to more severe overall psychopathology.
- Zeitschrift für Psychiatrie Psychologie und Psychotherapie 09/2009; 57(4):235-243. · 1.99 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: IntroductionWe aimed to investigate the nature of the associations between PD clusters and MDs, functionality and mental health services use.Revista de Psiquiatría Biológica y Salud Mental 01/2010; 3(1):4-12. · 0.31 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study tested the effectiveness of schema therapy (ST) for patients with chronic depression. Twelve patients with a diagnosis of chronic depression participated. The treatment protocol consisted of 60 sessions, with the first 55 sessions offered weekly and the last five sessions on a biweekly basis. A single case series A-B-C design, with 6 months follow-up was used. Baseline (A) was a wait period of 8 weeks. Baseline was followed by introduction to ST and bonding to therapist (phase B) with individually tailored length of 12-16 sessions, after which further ST was provided (phase C) up to 60 sessions (included the sessions given as introduction). Patients were assessed with Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression three times during baseline, at the end of phase B, then every 12 weeks until the end of treatment and at 6 months follow-up. Secondary outcome measures were the Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety and the Young Schema Questionnaire. At the end of treatment 7 patients (approximately 60%) remitted or satisfactorily responded. The mean HRSD dropped from 21.07 during baseline to 9.40 at post-treatment and 10.75 at follow-up. The effects were large and the gains of treatment were maintained at 6-month follow-up. Only one patient dropped out for reasons not related to treatment. The lack of control group, the small sample and the lack of a multiple baseline case series. This preliminary study supports the use of ST as an effective treatment for chronic depression.Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry 02/2014; 45(3):319-329. · 2.23 Impact Factor