Growth, Puberty, and Endocrine Functions in Patients With Sporadic or Familial Neurofibromatosis Type 1: A Longitudinal Study

Institute of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Schneider's Children Medical Center in Israel, Petah Tikva, Israel.
Pediatrics (Impact Factor: 5.47). 07/1999; 103(6 Pt 1):1257-62. DOI: 10.1542/peds.103.6.1257
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT This study prospectively evaluates parameters of growth, puberty, and attained adult height in children with sporadic or familial occurrence of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1), followed up longitudinally, to define the most important factors affecting these parameters.
The study was made up of 89 patients (55 boys, 34 girls) with sporadic (n = 45) or familial NF-1 (13 affected fathers and 31 affected mothers). The average age at referral was 8.9 years (range 8.5-15 years), and the average follow-up period was 8.5 years (6-15 years). A total of 28 patients attained adult height at the time of the report. Anthropometric measurements and bone age determinations were performed at 6- to 12-month intervals. As indicated, central nervous system (CNS) imaging was performed on 60 patients. Serum levels of thyroid stimulating hormone, free T4, lutheinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, testosterone or estradiol, cortisol, and prolactin were measured in all patients periodically, and the pituitary growth hormone reserve was assessed in 32 short patients.
CNS pathology was found in 23 of the 89 patients. A total of 6 patients required neurosurgery, and 2 patients had cranial irradiation. Of these patients, 3 were receiving recombinant growth hormone and thyroxin replacement therapy and 5 patients with precocious puberty were treated with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog. All other patients had normal endocrine tests. Precocious puberty was recorded in 5 patients and was more common among the familial cases. The 5 patients with precocious puberty also had CNS pathology. Short stature (<10th percentile) was observed in 25.5% of the patients during the prepubertal period with a significant gradual reduction of their relative height for age (standard scores) during puberty. Short adult height was noted in 12 (43%) of 28 patients, and only 50% of the 28 patients attained an adult height that was appropriate for their respective target height. Short stature was more common among patients with familial NF-1, particularly if the father was affected, and among those patients with CNS pathology. Parental short stature was observed in 39% of the mothers and in 33% of the fathers (59% and 54% among the affected parents, respectively). Tall stature (>90th percentile) was observed in 4 of 89 patients (4.5%), who all had CNS tumors. A highly significant correlation was found among all adult height-predicting parameters (r =.79), and attained adult height was best correlated with the target height (r =.7; n = 28).
Short adult height is an important characteristic of NF-1 and deserves to be emphasized in the evaluation and follow-up of these patients during childhood. Short adult height is strongly linked with familial background of NF-1, in particular if the affected parent is the father, and is affected adversely by the relatively poor pubertal growth. Despite normal pituitary gland and thyroid function tests in most children and adolescents with NF-1, increased incidence of precocious puberty was observed. As the clinical expression in the second generation is more pronounced, the underlying mechanism seems to be mediated by genetic factors that are yet undefined.

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    • "All rights reserved. 8 have short stature and whose prepubertal bone age is delayed by 1-2 years (Carmi et al., 1999). "
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    ABSTRACT: Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is one of the most frequent genetic disorders, affecting 1:3000 worldwide. Identification of genotype-phenotype correlations is challenging due to the wide range clinical variability, the progressive nature of the disorder and extreme diversity of the mutational spectrum. We report 136 individuals with a distinct phenotype carrying one of 5 different NF1 missense mutations affecting p.Arg1809. Patients presented with multiple café-au-lait macules (CALM) with or without freckling and Lisch nodules, but no externally visible plexiform neurofibromas or clear cutaneous neurofibromas were found. About 25% of the individuals had Noonan-like features. Pulmonic stenosis and short stature were significantly more prevalent compared to classic cohorts (p<0.0001). Developmental delays and/or learning disabilities were reported in over 50% of patients. Melanocytes cultured from a CALM in a segmental NF1-patient showed two different somatic NF1 mutations, p.Arg1809Cys and a multi-exon deletion, providing genetic evidence that p.Arg1809Cys is a loss-of-function mutation in the melanocytes and causes a pigmentary phenotype. Constitutional missense mutations at p.Arg1809 affect 1.23% of unrelated NF1 probands in the UAB cohort, therefore this specific NF1 genotype-phenotype correlation will affect counseling and management of a significant number of patients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Human Mutation 07/2015; DOI:10.1002/humu.22832 · 5.14 Impact Factor
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    • "Boulanger and Labrisseau 2005 [3] found optic glioma in 14.7% of the patients. Carmi et al. (1999; 11) found CNS pathology in 23/89 patients, while 6 patients required neurosurgery , and 2 patients cranial irradiation. Lama et al. (2007; 12) described 14 patients with OPT localized in the prechiasmal, chiasmal, prechiasmal/chiasmal and in the postchiasmal regions. "
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    ABSTRACT: (Full text is available at Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is an autosomal dominant disorder with varied clinical manifestations. The proband is a 6-year-old boy with signs of precocious puberty. His penis was 10 cm, testicles 8 ml, pubic hair P2-3, and the genital skin was hyperpigmented. Multiple cafe au lait spots well above 5 mm were noticeable on his skin, as well as hard subcutaneous nodules, mostly on his trunk. His intelligence and hearing are normal. He has no history of seizures. Laboratory analysis showed: LH LH 1.4 mIU/ml, FSH 6.2 mIU/ml, testosterone 183 ng/ml. Bone age was 9 years. LHRH stimulation was characteristic of true precocious puberty (LH 9.8 mIU/ml and FSH 8.9 mIU/ml after 30 minutes). The MRI of the brain showed a tumor of the suprasellar region with compression of the pituitary stalk. At present the boy is 6 years old and has been treated with triptoreline acetate for 3 months. The volume of the testicles has decreased to 7 ml and a slight loss of pubic hair was noted. In addition, his mother and his grandfather exhibited dermal masses, and focal cutaneous and subcutaneous growths. The great-grand father had had the same cutaneous changes and died at the age of 75 from unrelated causes. It has already been well documented that NF is associated with an increased risk of malignancy and precocious puberty. Hence, we emphasize the need for a close and regular clinical follow-up of the OPT, puberty and patterns of growth. Key words: Neurofibromatosis 1, optic nerve tumor, precocious puberty, familiar occurrence.
    Prilozi / Makedonska akademija na naukite i umetnostite, Oddelenie za biološki i medicinski nauki = Contributions / Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Section of Biological and Medical Sciences 12/2010; 31(2):253-9.
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    • "Individuals with NF1 tend to be below average in height and true short stature (<10th percentile) occurs in more than 40% of adults with NF1 (Carmi et al. 1999). One study found growth hormone deficiency in 3 of 122 children, although this does not appear to be the cause of short stature in most patients with NF1 (Cnossen et al. 1997). "
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this document is to provide recommendations for the genetic counseling of patients and families undergoing evaluation for neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) or who have received a diagnosis of NF1. These recommendations are the opinions of a multi-center working group of genetic counselors with expertise in the care of individuals with NF1. These recommendations are based on the committee's clinical experiences, a review of pertinent English language medical articles, and reports of expert committees. These recommendations are not intended to dictate an exclusive course of management, nor does the use of such recommendations guarantee a particular outcome. These recommendations do not displace a health care provider's professional judgment based on the clinical circumstances of an individual patient.
    Journal of Genetic Counseling 09/2007; 16(4):387-407. DOI:10.1007/s10897-007-9101-8 · 2.24 Impact Factor
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