Restricting access to palatable foods affects children's behavioral response, food selection, and intake.

Department of Human Development and Family Studies, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park 16802, USA.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (Impact Factor: 6.92). 07/1999; 69(6):1264-72.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Restricting children's access to palatable foods may appeal to parents as a straightforward means of promoting moderate intakes of foods high in fat and sugar; however, restricting access to palatable foods may have unintended effects on children's eating. The efficacy of restricting children's access to palatable foods as a means of promoting patterns of moderate intake of those foods is unknown.
Two experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that restricting access to a palatable food enhances children's subsequent behavioral responses to, selection of, and intake of that restricted food.
Both experiments used a within-subjects design to examine the effects of restricting access to a palatable food on children's subsequent behavior, food selection, and food intake. The first experiment examined the effects of restriction within and outside the restricted context and the second experiment focused on the effects within the restricted context.
In both experiments, restricting access to a palatable food increased children's behavioral response to that food. Experiment 2 showed that restricting access increased children's subsequent selection and intake of that food within the restricted context.
Restricting access focuses children's attention on restricted foods, while increasing their desire to obtain and consume those foods. Restricting children's access to palatable foods is not an effective means of promoting moderate intake of palatable foods and may encourage the intake of foods that should be limited in the diet.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background Children's picky eating behaviour has been linked both to being overweight and underweight. However, the role of parenting practices in this relationship has rarely been investigated. The present study aimed to clarify the direction of the association between picky eating and weight status and to examine the moderating role of food parenting practices.Methods The present study comprised a longitudinal study on the effects of picky eating on child weight status within the KOALA Birth Cohort Study, the Netherlands. Mothers and their children were included in the analyses. Children's picky eating behaviour and food parenting practices were assessed at baseline (child age 5 years). Their weight status was assessed repeatedly until age 9 years. Mixed effects linear and logistic regressions were used to compare picky eaters (n = 403) and non-picky eaters (n = 621) on changes in weight status over the years.ResultsAt baseline of age 5 years, picky eaters were slightly shorter, more often underweight and less often overweight than non-picky eaters, whereas energy intake in relation to body weight (kJ kg−1) was similar. Picky eaters with a normal weight at baseline had no increased risk of becoming underweight during follow-up until age 9 years, and were less likely to become overweight compared to non-picky eaters. There were no interactions with food parenting practices. The parents of picky eaters more often reported pressuring their child to eat and restrict unhealthy food intake compared to parents of non-picky eaters.Conclusions The association between picky eating and child weight status was not influenced by parenting practices.
    Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics 05/2015; DOI:10.1111/jhn.12322 · 2.07 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Parental feeding practices shape children's dietary preferences and behaviors, which can influence a child's weight status. Limited research exists on the precursors and contextual influences of feeding, particularly among Hispanic parents. Therefore, this study explored two areas potentially important for obesity prevention in young children: (1) precursors and contextual influences on parental feeding and (2) parental perceptions and knowledge of the child care food environment. Four focus groups (n=36) were held with Hispanic parents, predominantly mothers, of preschool children at two child care centers. Parents were asked about influences on what and how they feed their children, awareness of the child care center feeding environment, and current involvement in the child care center. Themes were coded using NVivo10 software (QSR International, Melbourne, Australia). Participants' childhood experiences influenced how they feed their children. Parents stated that both husbands and grandparents often indulged their children with unhealthy foods and thought this interfered with their efforts to maintain a healthy home environment. Participants reported that what their children ate while in child care sometimes influenced the home feeding environment. Cultural and environmental factors influence parental feeding and involvement in the child care setting. Consistent with socioecological system theory, exploring interactions between the environment and culture using a family focus framework, such as the Family Ecological Model, could provide a better understanding of these influences among Hispanic parents. Future obesity prevention interventions with Hispanic families should be culturally relevant and target the different environments where children spend their time.
    05/2015; DOI:10.1089/chi.2014.0118
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We examined mealtime interactions to assess whether they varied according to maternal body mass index, country and mode of feeding in 41 Israeli and UK mother-infant dyads. Feeding behaviours were coded using the Simple Feeding Element Scale. Significantly, more UK mothers breastfed during the filmed meal compared to Israeli mothers. Mealtime interactions did not vary according to maternal body mass index or country. Women who breastfed (as opposed to those who bottle fed or fed solids) provided fewer distractions during the meal, a more ideal feeding environment and fed more responsively.
    01/2015; 2(1). DOI:10.1177/2055102915579605