Lipid reactivity to stress: I. Comparison of chronic and acute stress responses in middle-aged airline pilots
ABSTRACT Lipids increase during psychological stress, but no studies have compared the effects of acute and chronic stressors on lipid responsivity in the same individuals. One hundred middle-aged men (n = 92) and women (n = 8) were examined during high chronic occupational stress, low chronic stress, and acute laboratory stressors. In addition to measures of perceived stress and affect, an extensive battery of lipid and lipoprotein measures was undertaken at each time point. Most lipid parameters were significantly increased during the chronic and acute stressors, although the responses to the different stressors were not consistently associated. For example, significant correlations among the chronic and acute stress responses were apparent for the apoproteins, but not for total, low density lipoprotein, or high density lipoprotein cholesterol. The factors and processes regulating these variables during stress may be different during acute and chronic stressors.
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ABSTRACT: Affection exchange theory and previous research suggest that affectionate behavior has stress-ameliorating effects. On this basis, we hypothesized that increasing affectionate behavior would effect improvements in physical and psychological conditions known to be exacerbated by stress. This study tested this proposition by examining the effects of increased romantic kissing on blood lipids, perceived stress, depression, and relationship satisfaction. Fifty-two healthy adults who were in marital or cohabiting romantic relationships provided self-report data for psychological outcomes and blood samples for hematological tests, and were then randomly assigned to experimental and control groups for a 6-week trial. Those in the experimental group were instructed to increase the frequency of romantic kissing in their relationships; those in the control group received no such instructions. After 6 weeks, psychological and hematological tests were repeated. Relative to the control group, the experimental group experienced improve-ments in perceived stress, relationship satisfaction, and total serum cholesterol. As a nonverbal means of communicating affection, kissing is nearly ubiquitous among human cultures (Eibl-Eibesfeldt, 1970). Speculations vary as to its origins. Some suggest that kissing began with the practice of premastication, wherein mothers Kory Floyd is Professor of human communication at Arizona State University, where the remaining authors are doctoral students. Order of authorship for all junior authors was determined alphabetically.Western Journal of Communication 05/2009; 73:113-133. DOI:10.1080/10570310902856071
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of chronic mild unpredictable stress (CMS) on the vasoconstrictor response and morphology of the thoracic aorta and serum lipid profiles in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were submitted to CMS, which consisted of the application of different stressors for 7 days per week across 3 weeks. The rats were sacrificed 15 days after CMS exposure. CMS induced supersensitivity to the vasoconstrictor effect of phenylephrine in endothelium-intact thoracic aortic rings without changes in aortic rings without endothelium, or pre-incubated with nitric oxide (NO) synthesis inhibitor. Rats submitted to CMS showed hypertrophy of the intima and tunica media of thoracic aorta, increased serum levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and atherogenic index, without changes in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, when compared with control rats. These data indicate that CMS induces physiological and morphological changes that may contribute to the development of atherosclerosis by mechanisms related to deficiency in NO production and dyslipidemia.Stress (Amsterdam, Netherlands) 01/2009; 12(4):320-7. DOI:10.1080/10253890802437779 · 3.46 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The authors investigated the within-person association of reported mood with blood pressure and total cholesterol (TC) levels, each assessed 4 times over an 18-month period in 128 men and 154 women. Change over time in tense arousal was significantly positively associated with changes over time in systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) but not TC. A change in hedonic tone was significantly associated with SBP (an increase in negative affect was associated with an increase in SBP) but not with DBP or TC. There were no sex differences in associations of mood with SBP or TC. However, increases in tense arousal and negative affect were significantly associated with an increase in DBP for women but not men.Health Psychology 02/2003; 22(1):47-53. DOI:10.1037/0278-6126.96.36.199 · 3.95 Impact Factor