Lipid reactivity to stress: I. Comparison of chronic and acute stress responses

Department of Psychology, University of Hartford, West Hartford, Connecticut, United States
Health Psychology (Impact Factor: 3.59). 06/1999; 18(3):241-50. DOI: 10.1037//0278-6133.18.3.241
Source: PubMed


Lipids increase during psychological stress, but no studies have compared the effects of acute and chronic stressors on lipid responsivity in the same individuals. One hundred middle-aged men (n = 92) and women (n = 8) were examined during high chronic occupational stress, low chronic stress, and acute laboratory stressors. In addition to measures of perceived stress and affect, an extensive battery of lipid and lipoprotein measures was undertaken at each time point. Most lipid parameters were significantly increased during the chronic and acute stressors, although the responses to the different stressors were not consistently associated. For example, significant correlations among the chronic and acute stress responses were apparent for the apoproteins, but not for total, low density lipoprotein, or high density lipoprotein cholesterol. The factors and processes regulating these variables during stress may be different during acute and chronic stressors.

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    • "hronic stress is more frequently related to cognitive and behavioral problems as well as maladaptive changes in brain structures ( Selye , 1956 ; McEwen , 2004 ) . Acute stress and chronic stress are distinguished by the duration of the stressors , with acute stress lasting from minutes to hours and chronic stress usually lasting 30 days or more ( Stoney et al . , 1999 ) . Cognitive processes supporting time perception , such as attention ( Caswell et al . , 2003 ; Liston et al . , 2009 ) , working memory ( Mika et al . , 2012 ; Corrêa et al . , 2015 ) , and long - term memory ( Cho , 2001 ; Lovell et al . , 2014 ; Corrêa et al . , 2015 ) , have been shown to be impaired in chronically stressed indivi"
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    ABSTRACT: Maintaining accurate and precise temporal perception under conditions of stress is important. Studies in animal models and clinic patients have suggested that time perception can change under chronic stress. Little is known, however, about the relationship between chronic stress and time perception in healthy individuals. Here, a sample of 62 healthy young men completed Cohen's Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) as a measure of chronic stress levels, while time perception was measured using a temporal bisection task. This task used short (400 ms) and long (1600 ms) visual signals as anchor durations. Participants were presented with a range of intermediate probe durations and were required to judge whether the durations were more similar to the short or the long anchor. Results showed that chronic stress was negatively related to temporal sensitivity indexed by the Weber ratio. However, there was no significant correlation between chronic stress and subjective duration indexed by the bisection point. These results demonstrate that higher chronic stress is associated with lower temporal sensitivity and thus provide evidence for a link between chronic stress and time perception in healthy adults.
    Frontiers in Psychology 08/2015; 6:1010. DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01010 · 2.80 Impact Factor
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    • "For example, systemic hypertension is associated with blunted morning cortisol and impaired negative feedback of the HPA axis (Wirtz et al., 2007), as well as increased cortisol responses to stress (Nyklicek et al., 2005). Serum cholesterol is elevated immediately following an acute laboratory stressor and remains elevated among those experiencing chronic stress (Stoney et al., 1999a,b); in turn, elevated cholesterol can facilitate atherosclerosis (reviewed in Insull, 2009). Likewise, extended release of HPA axis hormones that are responsible for increasing blood glucose to meet energy demands during an acute stressor, can result in the development of myopathy (Tomas et al., 1979; Mitsui et al., 2002) and steroid diabetes (Homo-Delarche et al., 1991) over time. "
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic stress is capable of exacerbating each major, modifiable, endogenous risk factor for cerebrovascular and cardiovascular disease. Indeed, exposure to stress can increase both the incidence and severity of stroke, presumably through activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Now that characterization of the mechanisms underlying epigenetic programming of the HPA axis is well underway, there has been renewed interest in examining the role of early environment on the evolution of health conditions across the entire lifespan. Indeed, neonatal manipulations in rodents that reduce stress responsivity, and subsequent life-time exposure to glucocorticoids, are associated with a reduction in the development of neuroendocrine, neuroanatomical, and cognitive dysfunctions that typically progress with age. Although improved day to day regulation of the HPA axis also may be accompanied by a decrease in stroke risk, evidence from rodent studies suggest that an associated cost could be increased susceptibility to inflammation and neuronal death in the event that a stroke does occur and the individual is exposed to persistently elevated corticosteroids. Given its importance in regulation of health and disease states, any long-term modulation of the HPA axis is likely to be associated with both benefits and potential risks. The goals of this review article are to examine (1) the clinical and experimental data suggesting that neonatal experiences can shape HPA axis regulation, (2) the influence of stress and the HPA axis on stroke incidence and severity, and (3) the potential for neonatal programming of the HPA axis to impact adult cerebrovascular health.
    Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience 12/2009; 3:54. DOI:10.3389/neuro.08.054.2009 · 3.27 Impact Factor
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    • "Chronically elevated cholesterol (a condition known as hypercholesterolemia) often leads to the formation and accumulation of plaque deposits in the arteries, which can contribute to atherosclerosis or coronary heart disease. Multiple studies have demonstrated that stress is associated with elevations in total cholesterol and changes in its constituent components, including triglycerides, high-density lipoproteins (HDL, or ''good cholesterol'') and low-density lipoproteins (LDL, or ''bad cholesterol;'' see, e.g., Bacon, Ring, Lip, & Carroll, 2004; McCann et al., 1995; Muldoon et al., 1995; Stoney, Niaura, Bausserman, & Metacin, 1999). The specific mechanisms through which stress elevates cholesterol level are as yet unknown, although some speculation suggests that they may reflect evolved processes through which stress-induced increases in energy (in the form of metabolic fuels such as glucose and fatty acids) initiate ancillary processes that elevate levels of LDL in the bloodstream (see Steptoe & Brydon, 2005). "
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    ABSTRACT: Affection exchange theory and previous research suggest that affectionate behavior has stress-ameliorating effects. On this basis, we hypothesized that increasing affectionate behavior would effect improvements in physical and psychological conditions known to be exacerbated by stress. This study tested this proposition by examining the effects of increased romantic kissing on blood lipids, perceived stress, depression, and relationship satisfaction. Fifty-two healthy adults who were in marital or cohabiting romantic relationships provided self-report data for psychological outcomes and blood samples for hematological tests, and were then randomly assigned to experimental and control groups for a 6-week trial. Those in the experimental group were instructed to increase the frequency of romantic kissing in their relationships; those in the control group received no such instructions. After 6 weeks, psychological and hematological tests were repeated. Relative to the control group, the experimental group experienced improve-ments in perceived stress, relationship satisfaction, and total serum cholesterol. As a nonverbal means of communicating affection, kissing is nearly ubiquitous among human cultures (Eibl-Eibesfeldt, 1970). Speculations vary as to its origins. Some suggest that kissing began with the practice of premastication, wherein mothers Kory Floyd is Professor of human communication at Arizona State University, where the remaining authors are doctoral students. Order of authorship for all junior authors was determined alphabetically.
    Western Journal of Communication 05/2009; 73(2):113-133. DOI:10.1080/10570310902856071
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