The IL-4 receptor: signaling mechanisms and biologic functions.
ABSTRACT Interleukin-4 is a multifunctional cytokine that plays a critical role in the regulation of immune responses. Its effects depend upon binding to and signaling through a receptor complex consisting of the IL-4R alpha chain and the common gamma chain (gamma c), resulting in a series of phosphorylation events mediated by receptor-associated kinases. In turn, these cause the recruitment of mediators of cell growth, of resistance to apoptosis, and of gene activation and differentiation. Here we describe our current understanding of the organization of the IL-4 receptor, of the signaling pathways that are induced as a result of receptor occupancy, and of the various mechanisms through which receptor function is modulated. We particularly emphasize the modular nature of the receptor and the specialization of different receptor regions for distinct functions, most notably the independent regulation of cell growth and gene activation.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The type II interleukin-4 receptor (IL4R) is expressed in human breast cancer, and in murine models thereof. It is activated by interleukin-4 (IL-4), a cytokine produced predominantly by immune cells. Previously, we showed that expression of IL4Rα, a signaling component of IL4R, mediates enhanced metastatic growth through promotion of tumor cell survival and proliferation. In lymphocytes, these processes are supported by increased glucose and glutamine metabolism, and B lymphocyte survival is dependent upon IL4/IL4R-induced glucose metabolism. However, it is unknown whether IL4R-mediated metabolic reprogramming could support tumor growth. Here, we show that IL4Rα expression increases proliferation thus enhancing primary mammary tumor growth. In vitro, IL4-enhanced glucose consumption and lactate production in 4T1 cells was mediated by IL4Rα. Expression of the glucose transporter GLUT1 increased in response to IL4 in vitro, and enhanced GLUT1 expression was associated with presence of IL4Rα in 4T1 mammary tumors in vivo. Although IL4 treatment did not induce changes in glucose metabolism in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells, it increased expression of the main glutamine transporter, ASCT2, and enhanced glutamine consumption in both MDA-MB-231 and 4T1 cells. Pharmacologic inhibition of glutamine metabolism with compound 968 blocked IL4/IL4Rα-increased cell number in both cell lines. Our results demonstrate that IL4R mediates enhanced glucose and glutamine metabolism in 4T1 cancer cells, and that IL4-induced growth is supported by IL4/IL4R-enhanced glutamine metabolism in both human and murine mammary cancer cells. This highlights IL4Rα as a possible target for effective breast cancer therapy. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Cell Research 03/2015; 1853(5). DOI:10.1016/j.bbamcr.2015.02.020 · 5.30 Impact Factor
Neuro-immune interaction in the adult central nervous system, 01/2013: chapter 1: pages 1-22;
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Ectromelia virus (ECTV) causes mousepox in mice, a disease very similar to smallpox in humans. ECTV and variola virus (VARV), the agent of smallpox, are closely related orthopoxviruses. Mousepox is an excellent small animal model to study the genetic and immunologic basis for resistance and susceptibility of humans to smallpox. Resistance to mousepox is dependent on a strong polarized type 1 immune response, associated with robust natural killer (NK) cell, cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) and gamma interferon (IFN-γ) responses. In contrast, ECTV-susceptible mice generate a type 2 response, associated with weak NK cell, CTL and IFN-γ responses but robust IL-4 responses. Nonetheless, susceptible strains infected with mutant ECTV lacking virus-encoded IFN-γ binding protein (vIFN-γbp) (ECTV-IFN-γbpΔ) control virus replication through generation of type 1 response. Since the IL-4/IL-13/STAT-6 signaling pathways polarize type 2/T helper 2 (Th2) responses with a corresponding suppression of IFN-γ production, we investigated whether the combined absence of vIFN-γbp, and one or more host genes involved in Th2 response development, influence generation of protective immunity. Most mutant mouse strains infected with wild-type (WT) virus succumbed to disease more rapidly than WT animals. Conversely, the disease outcome was significantly improved in WT mice infected with ECTV-IFN-γbpΔ but absence of IL-4/IL-13/STAT-6 signaling pathways did not provide any added advantage. Deficiency in IL-13 or STAT-6 resulted in defective CTL responses, higher mortality rates and accelerated deaths. Deficiencies in IL-4/IL-13/STAT-6 signaling pathways significantly reduced the numbers of IFN-γ producing CD4 and CD8 T cells, indicating an absence of a switch to a Th1-like response. Factors contributing to susceptibility or resistance to mousepox are far more complex than a balance between Th1 and Th2 responses.PLoS ONE 03/2015; 10(3):e0118685. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0118685 · 3.53 Impact Factor