Boggild H, Knutsson AShift work, risk factors and cardiovascular disease. Scand J Work Environ Health 25: 85-99

Centre for Working Time Research, Department of Occupational Medicine, Aalborg Regional Hospital, Denmark.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health (Impact Factor: 3.45). 05/1999; 25(2):85-99. DOI: 10.5271/sjweh.410
Source: PubMed


The literature on shift work, morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease, and changes in traditional risk factors is reviewed. Seventeen studies have dealt with shift work and cardiovascular disease risk. On balance, shift workers were found to have a 40% increase in risk. Causal mechanisms of this risk via known cardiovascular risk factors, in relation to circadian rhythms, disturbed sociotemporal patterns, social support, stress, behavior (smoking, diet, alcohol, exercise), and biochemical changes (cholesterol, triglycerides, etc) are discussed. The risk is probably multifactorial, but the literature has focused on the behavior of shift workers and has neglected other possible causal connections. In most studies methodological problems are present; these problems are related to selection bias, exposure classification, outcome classification, and the appropriateness of comparison groups. Suggestions for the direction of future research on this topic are proposed.

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Available from: Anders Knutsson, Sep 29, 2014
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    • "Referenz K Belastung Erkrankung Ergebnis Bemerkung 27 Backé et al., 2012 17 job strain isostrain ERI HKE 2/3 7/13 3/3 28 Belkic et al., 2004 17 job strain HKE 8/17 Längsschnitt 29 Bøggild & Knutsson, 1999 17 shift-work HKE 11/17 inkl. Dosis-outcome 1 Bonde, 2008 16 job strain Depression 3/3 30 Carels et al., 1998 "
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    ABSTRACT: Zusammenfassung. Gefährdungsbeurteilungen psychischer Belastungen erfordern Kenntnisse darüber, welche Arbeitsbelastungen potentiell gesundheitsgefährdend sind. Daher erfolgte eine systematische Suche (PubMed, PsycInfo, PSYNDEX,Web of Science) nach Metaanalysen und systematischen Reviews zum Zusammenhang von Arbeitsbelastungen und Erkrankungen. Suchkriterien für Belastungen waren: work intensity, job demand, job control, job strain, iso-strain, cognitive demands, effort, reward, effort/reward-imbalance, completeness, variety, repetitiveness, emotional labour, working hours, overtime, shift work, social stressors, social support, role stress, bullying and job insecurity; für Erkrankungen: Depression, Angst, Panik, kardiovaskuläre Erkrankungen, Typ-2-Diabetes. Die Auswertung von 54 Publikationen ergab, dass hohe Arbeitsintensität, geringer Handlungsspielraum, Job Strain, Effort-Reward-Imbalance, Überstunden, lange Arbeitszeiten, bestimmte Formen von Schichtarbeit, geringe soziale Unterstützung, Rollenstress, Bullying und Arbeitsplatzunsicherheit als potentiell gesundheitsgefährdend einzuschätzen und daher (neben hier nicht untersuchten Arbeitsbelastungen) bei Gefährdungsbeurteilungen berücksichtigt werden sollten. Schlüsselwörter: Review, psychische Arbeitsbelastungen, Gesundheitsgefährdung, Gefährdungsbeurteilung Current Status of Knowledge About Health Risk From Mental Workload: Evidence Based on a Systematic Review of Reviews Abstract. A healthy job design presupposes knowledge about the potential risks of workload. Therefore, this study assessed metaanalyses and systematic reviews addressing the risk of mental as well as somatic illness relative to psychosocial work factors. Metaanalyses and systematic reviews were identified by a systematic search of PubMed, PsycINFO, PSYNDEX, and Web of Science databases. Psychosocial work factors included the following: work intensity, job demand, job control, job strain, iso-strain, effort, reward, effort/reward imbalance, completeness, variety, cognitive demands, repetitiveness, emotional labor, working hours, overtime, shift work, social stressors, social support, role stress, bullying, and job insecurity. Mental and somatic diseases were depression, anxiety, panic, cardiovascular diseases, and type 2 diabetes. Fifty-four studies met the search criteria and were included in our review. High job demand, low job control, high job strain, effort/reward imbalance, working hours, overtime, shift work, low social support, role stress, bullying, and job insecurity were identified as risk factors for the occurrence of mental and somatic diseases. Assessment of work should include psychosocial work factors for which risk of diseases is known. There is extensive empirically supported knowledge about the potential health risk of different workloads. Keywords: psychosocial work factors, health risk, review, job stress, strain, workload
    Zeitschrift für Arbeits- und Organisationspsychologie 06/2015; 59(3):113-129. DOI:10.1026/0932-4089/a000186 · 1.19 Impact Factor
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    • "Le sommeil en journée est en moyenne plus court, plus morcelé et moins réparateur (Rohmer, Bonnefond, Muzet & Tassi, 2004 ; Rutenfranz, Haider & Koller, 1985). Le travail de nuit, transgressant les rythmes circadiens (Estryn-Béhar, 2008), entraîne certaines conséquences sur la santé des infirmiers : troubles cardiovasculaires (Boggild & Knutsson, 1999), troubles nerveux, dépressifs ou névrotiques, souvent associés à une consommation d'alcool ou de tranquillisants (Bohle & Tilley, 1989 ; Gordon, Clearly, Parker & Czeisler, 1986), troubles digestifs (Rutenfranz, Colquhoun, Knauth & Ghata, 1977) notamment liés à l'irrégularité des prises alimentaires en fonction des horaires de travail. "
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    ABSTRACT: This article gives an account of research carried out on working hours in a French hospital and specifically the impact on two ways of organizing working hours (12 hour shifts vs 8 hour shifts) on workers health and job strain as perceived by the health care providers. Based on 255 questionnaires, this research indicates that the health care providers who work in 12 hour shifts and 8 hour shifts have the same perception of their health and job strain. However, there are some differences: the health care providers working in 12 hour shifts feel less fatigue and emotional exhaustion than the health care providers working in 8 hour shifts. We discuss these results taking into account that: i) breaks in 12 hour shifts are longer than in 8 hour shifts; ii) workers have better relationships with their colleagues in 12 hour shifts, based on consultation and a vote held when a hospital department thought about changing to 12 hour shifts and iii) the workers volunteer to work in a 12 hour shifts.
    Psychologie du Travail et des Organisations 01/2015; 21(2):149-169. · 0.07 Impact Factor
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    • "Several studies have shown that sleep impairment occurs among professionals working rotating shifts and shiftwork has been implicated as a risk factor in a number of chronic diseases [12]. Our cross-sectional findings support the epidemiological evidence presented in other studies on the relationship between shiftwork and the risk of chronic disease, including cardiovascular problems (including cardiovascular disease) [4,18–20], digestive and gastrointestinal problems [19–23], metabolic syndrome and diabetes [12], and poor psychological health [18,24–26]. The continuous sleep disturbance or cumulative sleep deficit resulting in chronic fatigue, as well as associated lifestyle factors, are two of the factors responsible. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background The aim of this study was to investigate the burden experienced by nursing personnel working irregular shifts in Greece and to conduct the first test of a Greek version of the Standard Shiftwork Index (SSI). Methods A cross-sectional survey was carried out. The SSI was completed by 365 nurses and nursing assistants working shifts, including nights. Results Female nursing personnel and those suffering from a chronic disease were most affected by working rotating shifts as they had elevated scores on the majority of the SSI scales, such as sleep, chronic fatigue, digestive and cardiovascular problems, general health questionnaire, cognitive and somatic anxiety, shift time satisfaction, engagement and disengagement strategies, languidity, flexibility, and neurotisicm. Nurses with longer working experience and those with family responsibilities also scored higher on some of the SSI scales, such as the sleep, shift time satisfaction, social and domestic disruption, disengagement strategies, morningness, and languidity scales. Conclusion Shiftwork affects female nurses, those with chronic disease, older age, and domestic responsibilities more severely. Therefore management should take these factors into account when designing work schedules to alleviate the burden caused by shiftwork.
    Safety and Health at Work 06/2014; 5(2). DOI:10.1016/
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