To assess the prevalence rates and correlates of overweight, concern with weight, and bulimic behaviors.
A survey was completed by a population-based sample of 16,114 boys and girls aged 9 to 14 years.
Although fewer girls (19%) than boys (26%) were overweight, more girls (25% versus 22%) perceived themselves as overweight (p < .001). The proportion of girls reporting trying to lose weight increased with age (p < .001). The prevalence of binge eating at least monthly increased with age among the girls, but remained stable among the boys. The prevalence of purging was low (< or = 1%) and comparable between genders until age 13. Among the 13- and 14-year-olds, girls were significantly more likely than boys to report using laxatives or vomiting to control weight (p < or = .001). Purging was independently positively associated with stage of pubertal development (girls: odds ratio [OR] = 2.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.6-2.7; boys: OR = 1.5, 95% CI 1.0-2.2) and overweight (girls: OR = 1.9, 95% CI 1.2-3.0; boys: OR = 2.7, 95% CI 1.4-5.1).
Misperception of being overweight and concern with weight were common. Purging was a very rare behavior, but increased with pubertal development. Among the girls, the prevalence increased sharply around the onset of adolescence.
"This finding is expected in light of research indicating that the appearance ideals of muscularity and athleticism are less relevant to women than they are to men (F. L. Brown & Slaughter, 2011; Cafri, Strauss, & Thompson, 2002; Dunn, Lewis, & Patrick, 2010; Field et al., 1999; Pope, Phillips, & Olivardia, 2000; Striegel-Moore & Franko, 2002; J. K. Thompson & Cafri, 2007). Overall, these data provide support for the reliability and convergent validity of the SATAQ-4 scores in women from the United States. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-3 (SATAQ-3) and its earlier versions are measures designed to assess societal and interpersonal aspects of appearance ideals. Correlational, structural equation modeling, and prospective studies of the SATAQ-3 have shown consistent and significant associations with measures of body image disturbance and eating pathology. In the current investigation, the SATAQ-3 was revised to improve upon some conceptual limitations and was evaluated in 4 U.S. and 3 international female samples, as well as a U.S. male sample. In Study 1, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses for a sample of women from the Southeastern United States (N = 859) indicated a 22-item scale with 5 factors: Internalization: Thin/Low Body Fat, Internalization: Muscular/Athletic, Pressures: Family, Pressures: Media, Pressures: Peers. This scale structure was confirmed in 3 independent and geographically diverse samples of women from the United States (East Coast N = 440, West Coast N = 304, and North/Midwest N = 349). SATAQ-4 scale scores demonstrated excellent reliability and good convergent validity with measures of body image, eating disturbance, and self-esteem. Study 2 replicated the factorial validity, reliability, and convergent validity of the SATAQ-4 in an international sample of women drawn from Italy, England, and Australia (N = 362). Study 3 examined a sample of college males from the United States (N = 271); the 5-factor solution was largely replicated, yet there was some evidence of an underlying structure unique to men. Future research avenues include additional item testing and modification of the scale for men, as well as adaptation of the measure for children and adolescents. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
"Based on the recently collected data from four elementary schools and food outlets in a rural county of Alabama, this study analyses the patterns of childhood obesity, assesses community food environments, and examines the interactions between socioeconomic disparities, childhood obesity and food environments . In this research, the prevalence of overweight or obese was higher among boys as compared with girls, consistent with the previous studies (Field et al. 1999; Velde et al. 2007). Overweight or obesity rate among children aged 7–13 was 10% higher than those aged 4–6. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Childhood obesity has been rising rapidly in the USA. The rate is higher among those at a lower socioeconomic status and racial/ethnic minority groups. In Alabama, nearly half of the children from rural African American families are overweight or obese. Studies suggest that children's eating behaviours and weight could be influenced by surrounding food environments. The purpose of this paper is to assess the community food environment and examine the associations with childhood obesity in Alabama's Black Belt region.
This research uses both qualitative and quantitative methods. Weight status of 613 African American students in four elementary schools in a rural county of Alabama was assessed. We examined community food environments around children's home through GIS (Geographic Information System) and statistical methods. The interrelations between children's weight and community food environments are explored with multi-level models.
Approximately 42.1% of surveyed children were overweight or obese, much higher than the national average, 30.6%. In Model 1, convenience stores (3.44; P < 0.01), full service restaurants (8.99; P < 0.01) and supermarkets (-37.69; P < 0.01) were significantly associated with the percentile of body mass index. Fast food stores (-0.93; P = 0.88) were not related to children's weight. In Model 2, the additions of sociodemographic factors and school effects cause significant changes of the relationships between children's weight and four types of food outlets. The percentage of African American population (90.23, P < 0.01) and school (6.68, P < 0.01) were positively associated with children's weight; while median household income (-39.6; P < 0.01) was negatively related to it.
Children's weight is influenced by community food environments, sociodemographic factors and school context. Findings suggest that policymakers and planners need to improve community food environments of low-income minority communities. Parents and schools should pay more attention to reduce the negative impacts of food environments on children.
Child Care Health and Development 10/2014; 41(5). DOI:10.1111/cch.12204 · 1.69 Impact Factor
"At the beginning of cohort enrollment, the GUTS sample consisted of 7,843 boys and 9,039 girls, with 93.3% White and 6.7% of ethnic/racial minority backgrounds. A detailed description of GUTS is available elsewhere (Field et al., 1999). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: More lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youths than heterosexuals report substance use. We examined a theoretical model to understand these disparities in lifetime and past-year substance use by means of stress and attachment paradigms, using the longitudinal Growing Up Today Study (GUTS) and Nurses' Health Study II (NHSII). GUTS participants are the children of participants in NHSII; thus, child and maternal data are available. In addition, GUTS contains siblings, allowing for comparisons of LGB and heterosexual siblings. Of 5,647 GUTS youths (M = 20.6 years old in 2005), 1.6% were lesbian/gay (LG), 1.6% bisexual (BI), 9.9% mostly heterosexual (MH), and 86.9% completely heterosexual (CH). After adjusting for sibling clustering in GUTS and covariates, significantly more sexual minorities (LGs, BIs, and MHs) than CHs reported lifetime and past-year smoking, nonmarijuana illicit drug use, and prescription drug misuse. More sexual minorities also reported marijuana use in the past year. The relations between sexual orientation and substance use were moderated by the stress markers: As mother's discomfort with homosexuality increased, more BIs and MHs than CHs used substances. As childhood gender nonconforming behaviors increased, more LGs than CHs used substances. The relations between sexual orientation and substance use were mediated by attachment and maternal affection (percent of effect mediated ranged from 5.6% to 16.8%% for lifetime substance use and 4.9% to 24.5% for past-year use). In addition, sibling comparisons found that sexual minorities reported more substance use, more childhood gender nonconforming behaviors, and less secure attachment than CH siblings; mothers reported less affection for their sexual minority than CH offspring. The findings indicate the importance of stress and attachment paradigms for understanding sexual-orientation disparities in substance use. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
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