Occupational cancer among women: research status and methodologic considerations.
ABSTRACT Occupational causes of cancer have not been well-evaluated among women. An increase in the number of women in the work force in jobs with potentially hazardous exposures during the past few decades raises the question as to whether there is a need to enhance our efforts in this area. The inability to evaluate occupational causes of female gynecologic tumors in studies of men, plus the potential for variation in outcome responses between men and women because of gender-based exposure and susceptibility differences, underscore the need for investigations specifically focused on women. Investigations of occupational exposures and cancer risk among women may require design considerations that differ somewhat from studies of men. Issues to consider include the impact of studying outcomes with high survival (e.g., breast cancer), gender-specific exposure patterns and toxicokinetic processing of some chemicals, special limitations in the use of the general population as the referent, and the need to control for established risk factors for gynecologic tumors.
- SourceAvailable from: Beatriz Perez-Gomez[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Background Few occupational studies have addressed melanoma in women. Accordingly, our aim was to identify occupations with higher risk of cutaneous melanoma, overall and by site, in Swedish female workers.Methods All gainfully employed Swedish women were followed-up from 1971 to 1989, using Death/Cancer Registers. Occupational risk ratios adjusted for age, period, town size, and geographic zone were computed for each site. Risk patterns for different sites were then compared.ResultsHigh risks were observed among educators, bank tellers, dental nurses, librarians/archivists/curators, horticultural workers, and hatmakers/milliners. Telephone operators and textile workers had increased risk, mainly in the leg. Other occupation-specific site excesses were also found. Upper-limb risks were correlated with head/neck and thorax, though these two sites were not associated. Legs registered a special pattern, with a moderate correlation with upper limbs or thorax, and no correlation with head/neck.Conclusions Some occupations with possible exposure to arsenic/mercury displayed increased risk. The generalized excess risk among hatmakers/milliners warrants further attention. The weak correlation between legs and other sites suggests site specificity in melanoma risk factors. Am. J. Ind. Med. 2005. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.American Journal of Industrial Medicine 09/2005; 48(4):270 - 281. · 1.97 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background Previous studies have variably shown excess risks of elected cancers among dentists.Methods National Brazilian mortality data were used to obtain mortality patterns among dentists between 1996 and 2004. Cancer mortality odds ratios (MORs) and cancer proportional mortality ratios for all cancer sites were calculated, using the general population and physicians and lawyers as comparison groups.ResultsFemale dentists from both age strata showed higher risks for breast, colon-rectum, lung, brain, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Compared to physicians and lawyers, higher MOR estimates were observed for brain cancer among female dentists 20–49 yr. Among male dentists, higher cancer mortality was found for colon-rectum, pancreas, lung, melanoma, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Higher risk estimates for liver, prostate, bladder, brain, multiple myeloma and leukemia were observed among 50–79 yr old male dentists.DiscussionIf confirmed, these results indicate the need for limiting occupational exposures among dentists in addition to establishing screening programs to achieve early detection of selected malignant tumors. Am. J. Ind. Med. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.American Journal of Industrial Medicine 08/2014; · 1.97 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Occupational cancers are highly preventable. This communication summarizes the data on occupational carcinogenic hazards, highlighting important worker groups and prevention. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified 29 agents that may occur at work in Group 1 (carcinogenic in humans); 26 in Group 2A (probably carcinogenic); and 113 in Group 2B (possibly carcinogenic). Frequent occupational carcinogens in Central America include solar (Group 1) and ultraviolet (2A) radiation, diesel emissions (2A), polyaromatic hydrocarbons (1-3), environmental tobacco smoke (1), hexavalent chromium compounds (1) and benzene (1). Regarding women, studies on breast and ovarian cancer suggest associations with occupational exposures. The data on carcinogenic risks in the informal economy are scanty. Carcinogenic agents that may be present occur in agriculture include solar radiation, aflatoxins, diesel emissions, viruses, dusts, solvents and pesticides. Carcinogenic agents in the health sector include ethylene oxide; formaldehyde; environmental tobacco smoke; tri- and tetrachloroethylene; benzene; asbestos; carcinogenic drugs, hormones, antibiotics, pesticides, viruses and waste materials; and carcinogenic gases. Environmental exposures during development and infancy may cause childhood cancer. Prevention of health risks at the workplace is the responsibility of the employer. The principle of precaution, due to sparse, plausible and credible evidence about probable danger and the establishment of safety and health committees are recommended.Acta médica costarricense 12/2009; 51(4):195-205.