Occupational cancer among women: research status and methodologic considerations.
ABSTRACT Occupational causes of cancer have not been well-evaluated among women. An increase in the number of women in the work force in jobs with potentially hazardous exposures during the past few decades raises the question as to whether there is a need to enhance our efforts in this area. The inability to evaluate occupational causes of female gynecologic tumors in studies of men, plus the potential for variation in outcome responses between men and women because of gender-based exposure and susceptibility differences, underscore the need for investigations specifically focused on women. Investigations of occupational exposures and cancer risk among women may require design considerations that differ somewhat from studies of men. Issues to consider include the impact of studying outcomes with high survival (e.g., breast cancer), gender-specific exposure patterns and toxicokinetic processing of some chemicals, special limitations in the use of the general population as the referent, and the need to control for established risk factors for gynecologic tumors.
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ABSTRACT: Occupationally related risk of lung cancer among women and among nonsmokers has not been widely studied. A recently conducted population-based, case-control study in Missouri (United States) provided the opportunity to evaluate risk of lung cancer associated with several occupational factors. Incident cases (n = 429) were identified through the Missouri Cancer Registry for the period 1986 through 1991, and included 294 lifetime nonsmokers and 135 ex-smokers who had stopped at least 15 years prior to diagnosis or had smoked for less than one pack-year. Controls (n = 1,021) were selected through driver's license and Medicare files. Risk was elevated among women exposed to asbestos (ever: odds ratio [OR] = 3.5, 95 percent confidence interval [CI] = 1.2-10.0; > 9 yrs: OR = 4.6, CI = 1.1-19.2) and pesticides (ever: OR = 2.4, CI = 1.1-5.6; > 17.5 yrs: OR = 2.4, CI = 0.8-7.0). Risk also was elevated among dry cleaning workers (ever: OR = 1.8, CI = 1.1-3.0; > 1.125 yrs: OR = 2.9, CI = 1.5-5.4). Occupational risks for lung cancer among women merit further study.Cancer Causes and Control 09/1993; 4(5):449-54. · 3.20 Impact Factor
- La Medicina del lavoro 01/1995; 86(2):106-10. · 0.38 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: During a 15-year period in an urban area with over a million inhabitants, we identified 1,678 cases of leukemia among residents aged 16 or older. Case finding was done according to the methods of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) SEER program. Usual occupation was coded by a system based on the U.S. Census Bureau classification. According to age-standardized incidence rates for persons aged 16-67, significant excess leukemia risks were found for 14 male and 8 female occupation categories, with the larger number of male excess risk situations due to nonlymphatic leukemia. Lymphatic leukemia risks were significantly elevated among dentists, school teachers of both sexes, auto mechanics, gas station attendants, female assembly workers, and female laundry and dry cleaning workers. Nonlymphatic leukemia risks were significantly elevated among machinists, other metal tradesmen, heavy equipment operators, textile operatives, meat cutters, cannery workers, construction laborers, freight and stock handlers, policemen, and firemen. Risks of both types of leukemia were significantly elevated among registered and practical nurses and lumber mill workers. This study has not identified specific etiologic agents and exposures, but applied investigations aimed at disease control by prevention of cases are now possible in this community. Nationwide surveillance and control are recommended.American Journal of Industrial Medicine 02/1984; 6(3):185-205. · 1.97 Impact Factor