Estrogen actions in the central nervous system.

Harold and Margaret Milliken Hatch Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology, Rockefeller University, New York, New York 10021, USA.
Endocrine Reviews (Impact Factor: 19.36). 07/1999; 20(3):279-307. DOI: 10.1210/edrv.20.3.0365
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: Although estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) and 17β-estradiol play critical roles in protecting the cerebral cortex from ischemia-induced damage, there has been some controversy about the expression of ERα in this region of the brain. We have examined ERα mRNA and protein levels in the cerebral cortices of female mice at postnatal days 5 and 17 and at 4, 13, and 18 months of age. We found that although ERα transcript levels declined from postnatal day 5 through 18 months of age, ERα protein levels remained stable. Importantly, expression of the E2-regulated progesterone receptor gene was sustained in younger and in older females suggesting that age-related changes in estrogen responsiveness in the cerebral cortex are not due to the absence of ERα protein. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
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    ABSTRACT: Previous studies demonstrate that schizophrenia symptomatology in women is dependent upon estrogen levels. Estrogen has beneficial properties when administered in conjunction with antipsychotics, and estrogen also alters, in rats, dopamine neurotransmission, which is a common target of all antipsychotic medications, suggesting a possible interaction between the two. The aim of the current study was to investigate this possible interaction using functional magnetic resonance imaging in awake, female rats. Amphetamine-sensitized, ovariectomized rats receiving no, chronic low, or phasic high levels of estradiol replacement were used, and changes in blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signal were recorded over time in response to an acute amphetamine injection. Increasing levels of estradiol enhanced BOLD activation in pathways previously known to be implicated in schizophrenia symptomatology, such as the mesocorticolimbic, habenular and olfactory pathways, as well as more widespread areas. We propose here the first comprehensive "amphetamine activation map" integrating brain regions amphetamine-related BOLD activity is influenced by estrogen levels in sensitized female rats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Psychoneuroendocrinology 02/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2015.02.022 · 5.59 Impact Factor