Hypoxia inhibits the synthesis of phosphoinositides in the rabbit carotid body.
ABSTRACT Hypoxic transduction in the carotid body (CB) is regulated by several systems of second messengers, but the role of the phospholipase C system has not been studied. The aim of the present study was to characterize the turnover rate of inositol phosphates (InsPs) and phosphoinositides (PIs) and their modifications by hypoxia in the rabbit CB in vitro. In CBs, in which the PIs had been labelled previously with 3H-myo-inositol, hypoxia in the presence of LiCl did not modify the accumulation of 3H-InsPs, whilst exposure to hypoxia during the loading period in the presence of LiCl reduced the accumulation of 3H-InsPs by more than 50%. Endogenous levels of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate were unaltered by hypoxia. Synthesis of 3H-PIs from 3H-myo-inositol was markedly inhibited by hypoxia in the CB, but not in the rat superior cervical ganglion used as control tissue. Levels of 3H-phosphatidylinositol (3H-PtdIns), 3H-phosphatidylinositol 4-monophosphate and 3H-phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate were similarly decreased, indicating that inhibition occurs at a step prior to PtdIns synthesis. It is concluded that the phospholipase C system of second messengers does not play a significant role in the short-term regulation of hypoxic transduction cascade. It can be speculated that the decrease in PI availability produced by hypoxia might be involved in the functional changes observed in the CB on chronic hypoxic exposure.
- SourceAvailable from: Jesús Ureña[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We have monitored cytosolic [Ca2+] and dopamine release in intact fura-2-loaded glomus cells with microfluoroimetry and a polarized carbon fiber electrode. Exposure to low PO2 produced a rise of cytosolic [Ca2+] with two distinguishable phases: an initial period (with PO2 values between 150 and approximately 70 mm Hg) during which the increase of [Ca2+] is very small and never exceeds 150-200 nM, and a second phase (with PO2 below approximately 70 mm Hg) characterized by a sharp rise of cytosolic [Ca2+]. Secretion occurs once cytosolic [Ca2+] reaches a threshold value of 180 +/- 43 nM. The results demonstrate a characteristic relationship between PO2 and transmitter secretion at the cellular level that is comparable with the relation described for the input (O2 tension)output (afferent neural discharges) variables in the carotid body. Thus, the properties of single glomus cells can explain the sensory functions of the entire organ. In whole-cell, patch-clamped cells, we have found that in addition to O2-sensitive K+ channels, there are Ca2+ channels whose activity is also regulated by PO2. Ca2+ channel activity is inhibited by hpoxia, although in a strongly voltage-dependent manner. The average hypoxic inhibition of the calcium current in 30% +/- 10% at -20 mV but only 2% +/- 2% at +30 mV. The differential inhibition of K+ and Ca2+ channels by hypoxia helps to explain why the secretory response of the cells is displaced toward PO2 values (below approximately 70 mm Hg) within the range of those normally existing in arterial blood. These data provide a conceptual framework for understanding the cellular mechanisms of O2 chemotransduction in the carotid body.The Journal of General Physiology 02/1996; 107(1):133-143. · 4.73 Impact Factor
- Physiological Reviews 11/1994; 74(4):829-98. · 30.17 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Phosphorylated products of phosphatidylinositol play critical roles in the regulation of membrane traffic, in addition to their classical roles as second messengers in signal transduction at the cell surface. Growing evidence suggests that phosphorylation-dephosphorylation of the polar heads of phosphoinositides (polyphosphorylated inositol lipids) in specific intracellular locations signals either the recruitment or the activation of proteins essential for vesicular transport. Cross talk between phosphatidylinositol metabolites and guanosine triphosphatases is an important feature of these regulatory mechanisms.Science 04/1996; 271(5255):1533-9. · 31.03 Impact Factor