Hypoxia inhibits the synthesis of phosphoinositides in the rabbit carotid body.
ABSTRACT Hypoxic transduction in the carotid body (CB) is regulated by several systems of second messengers, but the role of the phospholipase C system has not been studied. The aim of the present study was to characterize the turnover rate of inositol phosphates (InsPs) and phosphoinositides (PIs) and their modifications by hypoxia in the rabbit CB in vitro. In CBs, in which the PIs had been labelled previously with 3H-myo-inositol, hypoxia in the presence of LiCl did not modify the accumulation of 3H-InsPs, whilst exposure to hypoxia during the loading period in the presence of LiCl reduced the accumulation of 3H-InsPs by more than 50%. Endogenous levels of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate were unaltered by hypoxia. Synthesis of 3H-PIs from 3H-myo-inositol was markedly inhibited by hypoxia in the CB, but not in the rat superior cervical ganglion used as control tissue. Levels of 3H-phosphatidylinositol (3H-PtdIns), 3H-phosphatidylinositol 4-monophosphate and 3H-phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate were similarly decreased, indicating that inhibition occurs at a step prior to PtdIns synthesis. It is concluded that the phospholipase C system of second messengers does not play a significant role in the short-term regulation of hypoxic transduction cascade. It can be speculated that the decrease in PI availability produced by hypoxia might be involved in the functional changes observed in the CB on chronic hypoxic exposure.
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ABSTRACT: Endothelin-1 (ET-1) excites carotid body (CB) chemoreceptors and induces mitosis of the chemoreceptors in chronic hypoxia. The aim of the present study was to examine the hypothesis that up-regulation of both ETA receptor and endogenous ET-1 expression in CB chemoreceptors enhances the response of intracellular Ca2+ to ET-1 following adaptation to chronic hypoxia (10% inspired O2 for 3-4 weeks). Cytosolic free [Ca2+] ([Ca2+]i) in type-I (glomus) cells freshly dissociated from rat CBs was measured by spectrofluorometry. Application of exogenous ET-1 (1-100 nM) concentration-dependently elevated [Ca2+]i in the glomus cells. This response to ET-1 (100 nM) was 49% greater in the chronically hypoxic (CH) group. The ET-1 response was abolished completely by the ETA receptor antagonist BQ610 (1 microM), but not by the ETB antagonist BQ788 (1 microM). The transient [Ca2+]i elevation induced by caffeine (30 mM) in the normoxic group was similar to that in the CH group, suggesting no differences in the intracellular Ca2+ stores. In situ hybridization with a digoxigenin-labelled antisense ETA receptor mRNA oligonucleotide probe revealed very intense and ubiquitous specific expression of ETA receptors in the lobules of glomus cells in the CH group, whereas staining in normoxic controls was light. Immunohistochemical studies revealed intense cytoplasmic staining for ET-1-immunoreactivity in most of the cell clusters in glomera in the CBs of CH rats but was faint in normoxic CBs. These findings indicate increased expression of both the ETA receptor and ET-1 in CB chemoreceptors during chronic hypoxia. Taken together, our results suggest that the [Ca2+]i response to ET-1 in rat CB chemoreceptors is augmented by up-regulation of ETA receptors and ET-1 expression. The enhancement of the paracrine/autocrine effect of ET-1 on the chemoreceptors is consistent with an excitatory and mitogenic role of the ET-1 and ETA receptor in the CB during chronic hypoxia.Pflügers Archiv - European Journal of Physiology 03/2002; 443(4):565-73. · 4.87 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The presence, subcellular distribution, species specificity and possible hypoxic stimulus-induced translocation of classical protein kinase C (cPKC) isozymes were examined in the carotid body. Carotid bodies were dissected from cats exposed in vivo to normoxic or acute hypoxic conditions and from normoxic rats. For immunohistochemistry isoform-specific monoclonal antisera to PKCalpha, PKCbetaI, PKCbetaII and PKCgamma were used. The immunoreactivity was visualized by fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) labelling. FITC/Texas red double-labelled specimens for the cPKC isozymes/tyrosine hydroxylase were used to demonstrate the chemoreceptor cell localization of cPKC isozymes. The immunofluorescence was detected using laser scanning confocal image technology. The results showed expression of the PKCalpha and PKCgamma but not PKCbeta isoforms in the cytoplasm of carotid body chemoreceptor cells. The double labelling provided evidence for the chemoreceptor cell localization of the cPKC isoforms detected. The immunostaining was most intense in the periphery of the perikarya, the nuclear envelope and, occasionally, the nucleoplasm. No major differences were found in the immunolocalization of PKCalpha and PKCgamma under normoxic and hypoxic conditions or between species. However, the immunoreactivity tended to accumulate more in the peripheral cytoplasm and away from the nucleus in the hypoxic chemoreceptor cell. This study demonstrates the presence of classical protein kinase C enzymes in chemoreceptor cells. The intensity of the immunoreactivity may suggest a role for the classical protein kinase C signalling pathway in shaping the hypoxic response at the carotid body. However, this study failed to provide firm evidence of this.European Respiratory Journal 10/2000; 16(3):459-63. · 6.36 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Chronic hypoxia (CH)-induced pulmonary hypertension is associated with decreased basal pulmonary artery endothelial cell (EC) Ca(2+), which correlates with reduced store-operated Ca(2+) (SOC) entry. Protein kinase C (PKC) attenuates SOC entry in ECs. Therefore, we hypothesized that PKC has a greater inhibitory effect on EC SOC and receptor-operated Ca(2+) entry after CH. To test this hypothesis, we assessed SOC in the presence or absence of the nonselective PKC inhibitor GF109203X [2-[1-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-1H-indol-3-yl]-3-(1H-indol-3-yl)maleimide] in freshly isolated, Fura-2-loaded ECs obtained from intrapulmonary arteries of control and CH rats (4 weeks at 0.5 atm). We found that SOC entry and 1-oleoyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol (OAG)- and ATP-induced Ca(2+) influx were attenuated in ECs from CH rats versus controls, and GF109203X restored SOC and OAG responses to the level of controls. In contrast, nonselective PKC inhibition with GF109203X or the selective PKC(epsilon) inhibitor myristoylated V1-2 attenuated ATP-induced Ca(2+) entry in ECs from control but not CH pulmonary arteries. ATP-induced Ca(2+) entry was also attenuated by the T-type voltage-gated Ca(2+) channel (VGCC) inhibitor mibefradil in control cells. Consistent with the presence of endothelial T-type VGCC, we observed depolarization-induced Ca(2+) influx in control cells that was inhibited by mibefradil. This response was largely absent in ECs from CH arteries. We conclude that CH enhances PKC-dependent inhibition of SOC- and OAG-induced Ca(2+) entry. Furthermore, these data suggest that CH may reduce the ATP-dependent Ca(2+) entry that is mediated, in part, by PKCepsilon and mibefradil-sensitive Ca(2+) channels in control cells.Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 09/2010; 334(3):753-60. · 3.89 Impact Factor