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Gastrointestinal toxicity of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs.

Section of Gastroenterology, Boston University School of Medicine and Boston Medical Center, MA 02118-2393, USA.
New England Journal of Medicine (Impact Factor: 54.42). 07/1999; 340(24):1888-99. DOI: 10.1056/NEJM199906173402407
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), which act via inhibition of the cyclooxygenase (COX) isozymes, were discovered more than 100 years ago. They remain a key component of the pharmacological management of acute and chronic pain. The COX-1 and COX-2 isozymes have different biological functions; analgesic activity is primarily (although not exclusively) associated with inhibition of COX-2, while different side effects result from the inhibition of COX-1 and COX-2. All available NSAIDs, including acetaminophen and aspirin, are associated with potential side effects, particularly gastrointestinal and cardiovascular effects, related to their relative selectivity for COX-1 and COX-2. Since all NSAIDs exert their therapeutic activity through inhibition of the COX isozymes, strategies are needed to reduce the risks associated with NSAIDs while achieving sufficient pain relief. A better understanding of the inhibitory activity and COX-1/COX-2 selectivity of an NSAID at therapeutic doses, based on pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties (eg, inhibitory dose, absorption, plasma versus tissue distribution, and elimination), and the impact on drug tolerability and safety can guide the selection of appropriate NSAIDs for pain management. For example, many NSAIDs with moderate to high selectivity for COX-2 versus COX-1 can be administered at doses that maximize efficacy (~80% inhibition of COX-2) while minimizing COX-1 inhibition and associated side effects, such as gastrointestinal toxicity. Acidic NSAIDs with favorable tissue distribution and short plasma half-lives can additionally be dosed to provide near-constant analgesia while minimizing plasma concentrations to permit recovery of COX-mediated prostaglandin production in the vascular wall and other organs. Each patient's clinical background, including gastrointestinal and cardiovascular risk factors, should be taken into account when selecting appropriate NSAIDs. New methods are emerging to assist clinicians in the selection of appropriate NSAIDs and their doses/schedules, such as biomarkers that may predict the response to NSAID treatment in individual patients.
    Journal of Pain Research 02/2015; 8:105-18. DOI:10.2147/JPR.S75160
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    ABSTRACT: There are several guidelines addressing the issues around the use of NSAIDs. However, none has specifically addressed the upper versus lower gastrointestinal (GI) risk of COX-2 selective and non-selective compounds nor the interaction at both the GI and cardiovascular (CV) level of either class of drugs with low-dose aspirin. This Consensus paper aims to develop statements and guidance devoted to these specific issues through a review of current evidence by a multidisciplinary group of experts. A modified Delphi consensus process was adopted to determine the level of agreement with each statement and to determine the level of agreement with the strength of evidence to be assigned to the statement. For patients with both low GI and CV risks, any non-selective NSAID (ns-NSAID) alone may be acceptable. For those with low GI and high CV risk, naproxen may be preferred because of its potential lower CV risk compared with other ns-NSAIDs or COX-2 selective inhibitors, but celecoxib at the lowest approved dose (200 mg once daily) may be acceptable. In patients with high GI risk, if CV risk is low, a COX-2 selective inhibitor alone or ns-NSAID with a proton pump inhibitor appears to offer similar protection from upper GI events. However, only celecoxib will reduce mucosal harm throughout the entire GI tract. When both GI and CV risks are high, the optimal strategy is to avoid NSAID therapy, if at all possible. Time is now ripe for offering patients with osteoarthritis the safest and most cost-effective therapeutic option, thus preventing serious adverse events which could have important quality of life and resource use implications.
    BMC Medicine 01/2015; 13(1):55. DOI:10.1186/s12916-015-0285-8 · 7.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The anti-inflammatory activity of Andrographis paniculata (Acanthaceae), a traditional medicine widely used in Asia, is commonly attributed to andrographolide, its main secondary metabolite. Commercial A. paniculata extracts are standardised to andrographolide content. We undertook the present study to investigate 1) how selective enrichment of andrographolide in commercial A. paniculata extracts affects the variability of non-standardised phytochemical components and 2) if variability in the non-standardised components of the extract affects the pharmacological activity of andrographolide itself. We characterized 12 commercial, standardised (≥30% andrographolide) batches of A. paniculata extracts from India by HPLC profiling. We determined the antioxidant capacity of the extracts using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging, oxygen radical antioxidant capacity (ORAC) and a Folin-Ciocalteu (FC) antioxidant assays. Their anti-inflammatory activity was assessed by assaying their inhibitory effect on the release of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in the human monocytic cell line THP-1. The andrographolide content in the samples was close to the claimed value (32.2 ± 2.1%, range 27.5 to 35.9%). Twenty-one non-standardised constituents exhibited more than 2-fold variation in HPLC peak intensities in the tested batches. The chlorogenic acid content of the batches varied more than 30-fold. The DPPH free radical scavenging activity varied ~3-fold, the ORAC and FC antioxidant capacity varied ~1.5 fold among batches. In contrast, the TNF-α inhibitory activity of the extracts exhibited little variation and comparison with pure andrographolide indicated that it was mostly due to their andrographolide content. Standardised A. paniculata extracts contained the claimed amount of andrographolide but exhibited considerable phytochemical background variation. DPPH radical scavenging activity of the extracts was mostly due to the flavonoid/phenlycarboxylic acid compounds in the extracts. The inhibitory effect of andrographolide on the release of TNF-α was little affected by the quantitative variation of the non-standardised constituents.
    BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 12/2015; 15(1). DOI:10.1186/s12906-015-0525-7 · 1.88 Impact Factor

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