The efficacy of exercise as an aid for smoking cessation in women - A randomized controlled trial

Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, United States
Archives of Internal Medicine (Impact Factor: 13.25). 06/1999; 159(11):1229-34. DOI: 10.1001/archinte.159.11.1229
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Smoking prevalence rates among women are declining at a slower rate than among men.
To determine if exercise, a healthful alternative to smoking, enhances the achievement and maintenance of smoking cessation.
Two hundred eighty-one healthy, sedentary female smokers were randomly assigned to either a cognitive-behavioral smoking cessation program with vigorous exercise (exercise) or to the same program with equal staff contact time (control). Subjects participated in a 12-session, group-based smoking cessation program. Additionally, exercise subjects were required to attend 3 supervised exercise sessions per week and control subjects were required to participate in 3 supervised health education lectures per week. Abstinence from smoking was based on self-report, was verified by saliva cotinine level, and was measured at 1 week after quit day (week 5), end of treatment (week 12), and 3 and 12 months later (20 and 60 weeks after quit day, respectively).
Compared with control subjects (n = 147), exercise subjects (n = 134) achieved significantly higher levels of continuous abstinence at the end of treatment (19.4% vs 10.2%, P = .03) and 3 months (16.4% vs 8.2%, P=.03) and 12 months (11.9% vs 5.4%, P=.05) following treatment. Exercise subjects had significantly increased functional capacity (estimated VO2 peak, 25+/-6 to 28+/-6, P<.01) and had gained less weight by the end of treatment (3.05 vs 5.40 kg, P = .03).
Vigorous exercise facilitates short- and longer-term smoking cessation in women when combined with a cognitive-behavioral smoking cessation program. Vigorous exercise improves exercise capacity and delays weight gain following smoking cessation.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: For longitudinal data, the modeling of a correlation matrix R can be a difficult statistical task due to both the positive definite and the unit diagonal constraints. Because the number of parameters increases quadratically in the dimension, it is often useful to consider a sparse parameterization. We introduce a pair of prior distributions on the set of correlation matrices for longitudinal data through the partial autocorrelations (PACs), which vary independently over (−1,1). The first prior shrinks each of the PACs toward zero with increasingly aggressive shrinkage in lag. The second prior (a selection prior) is a mixture of a zero point mass and a continuous component for each PAC, allowing for a sparse representation. The structure implied under our priors is readily interpretable for time-ordered responses because each zero PAC implies a conditional independence relationship in the distribution of the data. Selection priors on the PACs provide a computationally attractive alternative to selection on the elements of R or R − 1 for ordered data. These priors allow for data-dependent shrinkage/selection under an intuitive parameterization in an unconstrained setting. The proposed priors are compared to standard methods through a simulation study and illustrated using a multivariate probit data example. Supplemental materials for this article (appendix, data, and R code) are available online.
    Journal of Computational and Graphical Statistics 10/2014; 23(4). DOI:10.1080/10618600.2013.852553 · 1.18 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective: The goal of this meta-analysis was to examine whether long-term physical exercise could be a potential effective treatment for substance use disorders (SUD). Methods: The PubMed, Web of Science, Elsevier, CNKI and China Info were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCT) studies in regards to the effects of physical exercise on SUD between the years 1990 and 2013. Four main outcome measures including abstinence rate, withdrawal symptoms, anxiety, and depression were evaluated. Results: Twenty-two studies were integrated in the meta-analysis. The results indicated that physical exercise can effectively increase the abstinence rate (OR = 1.69 (95% CI: 1.44, 1.99), z = 6.33, p < 0.001), ease withdrawal symptoms (SMD = -1.24 (95% CI: -2.46, -0.02), z = -2, p < 0.05), and reduce anxiety (SMD = -0.31 (95% CI: -0.45, -0.16), z = -4.12, p < 0.001) and depression (SMD = -0.47 (95% CI: -0.80, -0.14), z = -2.76, p < 0.01). The physical exercise can more ease the depression symptoms on alcohol and illicit drug abusers than nicotine abusers, and more improve the abstinence rate on illicit drug abusers than the others. Similar treatment effects were found in three categories: exercise intensity, types of exercise, and follow-up periods. Conclusions: The moderate and high-intensity aerobic exercises, designed according to the Guidelines of American College of Sports Medicine, and the mind-body exercises can be an effective and persistent treatment for those with SUD.
    PLoS ONE 10/2014; 9(10):e110728. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0110728 · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Source

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 29, 2014