Late appearance of acanthocytes during the course of chorea-acanthocytosis
ABSTRACT A case of chorea-acanthocytosis (CA) syndrome is described. The presence of acanthocytes has usually been considered an important diagnostic marker of CA. However, it is not specific and other neurological diseases have to be considered. In the present report we rule out other diagnostic possibilities and show that the acanthocytes in the peripheral blood smears can appear even later during the course of the disease.
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ABSTRACT: Movement disorders, particularly those associated with basal ganglia disease, have a high rate of comorbid neuropsychiatric illness. We consider the pathophysiological basis of the comorbidity between movement disorders and neuropsychiatric illness by 1) reviewing the epidemiology of neuropsychiatric illness in a range of hyperkinetic movement disorders, and 2) correlating findings to evidence from studies that have utilized modern neuroimaging techniques to investigate these disorders. In addition to diseases classically associated with basal ganglia pathology, such as Huntington disease, Wilson disease, the neuroacanthocytoses, and diseases of brain iron accumulation, we include diseases associated with pathology of subcortical white matter tracts, brain stem nuclei, and the cerebellum, such as metachromatic leukodystrophy, dentatorubropallidoluysian atrophy, and the spinocerebellar ataxias. Neuropsychiatric symptoms are integral to a thorough phenomenological account of hyperkinetic movement disorders. Drawing on modern theories of cortico-subcortical circuits, we argue that these disorders can be conceptualized as disorders of complex subcortical networks with distinct functional architectures. Damage to any component of these complex information-processing networks can have variable and often profound consequences for the function of more remote neural structures, creating a diverse but nonetheless rational pattern of clinical symptomatology.08/2013; 3.
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ABSTRACT: The framework of genre systems (Bazerman, 1994; Bhatia, 2004; Swales, 2004) offers an opportunity to illuminate the ways in which students enculturate into their disciplinary cultures (Berkenkotter & Huckin, 1995). To explore the ways in which genre chains are constructed through engagement in specific tasks, this study investigates two international students’ development of genre systems in law and MBA programs through the examination of program syllabi and individual student engagement. The findings demonstrate key differences between the programs in expectations and genre sets, as well as illuminating the ways that individuals construct genre systems to mitigate the language challenges that they face. The findings add a thick description to the specific vs. general EAP discussion.English for Specific Purposes 04/2012; DOI:10.1016/j.esp.2011.09.001 · 1.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: CHOREA CAN BE CAUSED BY A MULTITUDE OF ETIOLOGIES: neurodegenerative, pharmacological, structural, metabolic, and others. In absence of other apparent causes, exclusion of Huntington's disease is often a first step in the diagnostic process. There are a number of neurodegenerative disorders whose genetic etiology has been identified in the past decade. Molecular diagnosis has enabled genetic identification of disorder subtypes which were previously grouped together, such as the neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation disorders and the neuroacanthocytosis syndromes, as well as identification of phenotypic outliers for recognized disorders. Correct molecular diagnosis is essential for genetic counseling and, hopefully, ultimately genetic therapies. In addition, there has recently been recognition of other disorders which can mimic neurodegenerative disorders, including paraneoplastic and prion disorders. This article focuses upon recent developments in the field but is not intended to provide an exhaustive review of all causes of chorea, which is available elsewhere. I also discuss the nomenclature of these disorders which has become somewhat unwieldy, but may ultimately be refined by association with the causative gene.01/2012; 2.