A case of chorea-acanthocytosis (CA) syndrome is described. The presence of acanthocytes has usually been considered an important diagnostic marker of CA. However, it is not specific and other neurological diseases have to be considered. In the present report we rule out other diagnostic possibilities and show that the acanthocytes in the peripheral blood smears can appear even later during the course of the disease.
"The majority of ChAc patients experience neuropsychiatric symptoms40,41 and these may precede overt neurological illness by more than a decade.42,43 The most common psychiatric problem in ChAc is OCD, which affects more than 50% of patients.43,44 "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Movement disorders, particularly those associated with basal ganglia disease, have a high rate of comorbid neuropsychiatric illness.
We consider the pathophysiological basis of the comorbidity between movement disorders and neuropsychiatric illness by 1) reviewing the epidemiology of neuropsychiatric illness in a range of hyperkinetic movement disorders, and 2) correlating findings to evidence from studies that have utilized modern neuroimaging techniques to investigate these disorders. In addition to diseases classically associated with basal ganglia pathology, such as Huntington disease, Wilson disease, the neuroacanthocytoses, and diseases of brain iron accumulation, we include diseases associated with pathology of subcortical white matter tracts, brain stem nuclei, and the cerebellum, such as metachromatic leukodystrophy, dentatorubropallidoluysian atrophy, and the spinocerebellar ataxias.
Neuropsychiatric symptoms are integral to a thorough phenomenological account of hyperkinetic movement disorders. Drawing on modern theories of cortico-subcortical circuits, we argue that these disorders can be conceptualized as disorders of complex subcortical networks with distinct functional architectures. Damage to any component of these complex information-processing networks can have variable and often profound consequences for the function of more remote neural structures, creating a diverse but nonetheless rational pattern of clinical symptomatology.
"5%–50% of the red cell population, may appear late during the course of the disease (Sorrentino et al., 1999) or may be absent (Bayreuther et al., 2010). Increased serum CK is observed in the majority of affected individuals and is a useful diagnostic feature. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The terms "neuroacanthocytosis" (NA) and "neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation" (NBIA) both refer to groups of genetically heterogeneous disorders, classified together due to similarities of their phenotypic or pathological findings. Even collectively, the disorders that comprise these sets are exceedingly rare and challenging to study. The NBIA disorders are defined by their appearance on brain magnetic resonance imaging, with iron deposition in the basal ganglia. Clinical features vary, but most include a movement disorder. New causative genes are being rapidly identified; however, the mechanisms by which mutations cause iron accumulation and neurodegeneration are not well understood. NA syndromes are also characterized by a progressive movement disorder, accompanied by cognitive and psychiatric features, resulting from mutations in a number of genes whose roles are also basically unknown. An overlapping feature of the two groups, NBIA and NA, is the occurrence of acanthocytes, spiky red cells with a poorly-understood membrane dysfunction. In this review we summarise recent developments in this field, specifically insights into cellular mechanisms and from animal models. Cell membrane research may shed light upon the significance of the erythrocyte abnormality, and upon possible connections between the two sets of disorders. Shared pathophysiologic mechanisms may lead to progress in the understanding of other types of neurodegeneration.
Neurobiology of Disease 03/2012; 46(3):607-24. DOI:10.1016/j.nbd.2012.03.006 · 5.08 Impact Factor
"As both acanthocytes39–41 and chorea may be variable or absent at any point in a patient's clinical course, it has been suggested that the name “chorea-acanthocytosis” is inaccurate. As the affected protein has been named “chorein,” a more appropriate term may be “chorein disease,” “chorein-associated neurodegeneration,” or “chorein-opathy,” although I am reluctant to advocate for yet another change in nomenclature for a disorder whose taxonomy has already resulted in confusion. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CHOREA CAN BE CAUSED BY A MULTITUDE OF ETIOLOGIES: neurodegenerative, pharmacological, structural, metabolic, and others. In absence of other apparent causes, exclusion of Huntington's disease is often a first step in the diagnostic process. There are a number of neurodegenerative disorders whose genetic etiology has been identified in the past decade. Molecular diagnosis has enabled genetic identification of disorder subtypes which were previously grouped together, such as the neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation disorders and the neuroacanthocytosis syndromes, as well as identification of phenotypic outliers for recognized disorders. Correct molecular diagnosis is essential for genetic counseling and, hopefully, ultimately genetic therapies. In addition, there has recently been recognition of other disorders which can mimic neurodegenerative disorders, including paraneoplastic and prion disorders. This article focuses upon recent developments in the field but is not intended to provide an exhaustive review of all causes of chorea, which is available elsewhere. I also discuss the nomenclature of these disorders which has become somewhat unwieldy, but may ultimately be refined by association with the causative gene.
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