Epidemiology and the natural course of inflammatory bowel disease.

Gastrointestinal Unit (Medical Services), Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, USA.
Gastroenterology Clinics of North America (Impact Factor: 1.92). 07/1999; 28(2):255-81, vii. DOI: 10.1016/S0889-8553(05)70056-X
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease are inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract that are distributed unevenly within populations and throughout the world. Although the exact causes of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) remain unknown, study of the epidemiology of IBD has provided insight into pathogenesis. This article examines the geographic, ethnic, and other trends of IBD; risk factors (including genetic and environmental); and the natural history of IBD.

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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of naringin on experimentally induced inflammatory bowel disease in rats. Naringin (20, 40 and 80 mg/kg) was given orally for 7 days to Wistar rats before induction of colitis by intrarectal instillation of 2 mL of 4% (v/v) acetic acid solution. The degree of colonic mucosal damage was analyzed by examining mucosal damage, ulcer area, ulcer index and stool consistency. Intrarectal administration of 4% acetic acid resulted in significant modulation of serum alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) content along with colonic nitric oxide (NO), xanthine oxidase (XO) level and protein carbonyl content in the colonic tissue as well as in blood. Naringin (40 and 80 mg/kg) exerted a dose dependent (P < 0.05) ameliorative effect, as it significantly increased hematological parameter as well as colonic SOD and GSH. There was a significant (P < 0.05) and dose dependant inhibition of macroscopical score, ulcer area along with colonic MDA, MPO activity by the 7 days of pretreatment of naringin (40 and 80 mg/kg). Biochemical studies revealed a significant (P < 0.05) dose dependant inhibition in serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels by pretreatment of naringin. Increased levels of colonic NO, XO, protein carbonyl content and DNA damage were also significantly decreased by naringin pretreatment. The findings of the present investigation propose that naringin has an anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-apoptotic potential effect at colorectal sites as it modulates the production and expression of oxidative mediators such as MDA, MPO, NO and XO, thus reducing DNA damage.
    03/2014; 28(2):132-45. DOI:10.7555/JBR.27.20120082
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    ABSTRACT: Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory disease that primarily affects the colonic mucosa. Mesalamine had been established as a first line drug for treating mild to moderate UC. A continued availability of the drug for treatment of damaged tissues remains a great challenge today. In the present study, a novel mesalamine collagen in situ gel has been prepared using Type I collagen, which is pH/temperature sensitive. This hydrogel undergoes sol-gel transition under physiological pH and temperature which was confirmed by rheological studies. The in vitro release profile demonstrated sustained release of mesalamine over a period of 12 h. The in vivo efficacy of the in situ gel was performed using dextran sodium sulphate induced ulcerative colitis model using BALB/c mice. The clinical parameters such as, body weight changes, rectal bleeding and stool consistency were evaluated. In addition, the histopathological investigation was conducted to assess severity of mucosal damage and inflammation infiltrate. There was a significant reduction in rectal bleeding and mucosal damage score for test group compared to the reference group. Apart from releasing mesalamine in controlled manner, the strategy of administering mesalamine through collagen in situ gel facilitates regeneration of damaged mucosa resulting in a synergistic effect for the treatment of ulcerative colitis.
    European journal of pharmaceutical sciences: official journal of the European Federation for Pharmaceutical Sciences 11/2012; 48(1-2). DOI:10.1016/j.ejps.2012.10.015 · 3.01 Impact Factor
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    Inflammatory Bowel Disease - Advances in Pathogenesis and Management, 01/2012; , ISBN: 978-953-307-891-5