Selective breeding for high and low alcohol preference in mice.
ABSTRACT High and low alcohol preference (HAP and LAP, respectively) mice were created by 10 generations of bidirectional selection for differences in two-bottle choice alcohol consumption. The progenitors used for selection were HS/lbg mice, which are a genetically defined, outbred stock. During selection, mice had 24-h, daily access to 10% alcohol (v/v) and water ad libitum for 30 days and were selected based on the alcohol (g/kg) consumed per day over the entire period. Food was available ad libitum. At S10, line means for alcohol consumption differed greatly, with consumption of over 12 g/kg per day in the HAP mice and less than 2 g/kg per day in the LAP mice. Realized heritability for bidirectional selection was approximately 0.2. Female mice consumed more alcohol than male mice. There were no differences between lines in alcohol elimination rate, nor were there line differences in intake of salt or quinine solutions. However, consumption of saccharin solutions was greater in HAP mice than LAP mice, consistent with previous findings of a genetic correlation between sweet preference and alcohol drinking. Because the mouse genome is relatively well characterized, these selected lines should prove a useful tool for assessment of the genetic basis of, and phenotypes that correlate with, alcohol drinking.
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ABSTRACT: microRNAs (miRNAs) regulate expression by promoting degradation or repressing translation of target transcripts. miRNA target sites have been catalogued in databases based on experimental validation and computational prediction using various algorithms. Several online resources provide collections of multiple databases but need to be imported into other software, such as R, for processing, tabulation, graphing and computation. Currently available miRNA target site packages in R are limited in the number of databases, types of databases and flexibility. We present multiMiR, a new miRNA-target interaction R package and database, which includes several novel features not available in existing R packages: (i) compilation of nearly 50 million records in human and mouse from 14 different databases, more than any other collection; (ii) expansion of databases to those based on disease annotation and drug microRNAresponse, in addition to many experimental and computational databases; and (iii) user-defined cutoffs for predicted binding strength to provide the most confident selection. Case studies are reported on various biomedical applications including mouse models of alcohol consumption, studies of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in human subjects, and human cell line models of bladder cancer metastasis. We also demonstrate how multiMiR was used to generate testable hypotheses that were pursued experimentally.Nucleic Acids Research 07/2014; · 8.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Initial sensitivity to ethanol (EtOH) and the capacity to develop acute functional tolerance (AFT) to its adverse effects may influence the amount of alcohol consumed and may also predict future alcohol use patterns. The current study assessed sensitivity and AFT to the ataxic and hypnotic effects of EtOH in the first replicate of mice (HDID-1) selectively bred for high blood EtOH concentrations (BECs) following limited access to EtOH in the Drinking in the Dark (DID) paradigm. Naïve male and female HDID-1 and HS/Npt mice from the progenitor stock were evaluated in 3 separate experiments. In Experiments 1 and 2, EtOH-induced ataxia was assessed using the static dowel task. In Experiment 3, EtOH-induced hypnosis was assessed by using modified restraint tubes to measure the loss of righting reflex (LORR). HDID-1 mice exhibited reduced initial sensitivity to both EtOH-induced ataxia (p < 0.001) and hypnosis (p < 0.05) relative to HS/Npt mice. AFT was calculated by subtracting the BEC at loss of function from the BEC at recovery (Experiments 1 and 3) or by subtracting BEC at an initial recovery from the BEC at a second recovery following an additional alcohol dose (Experiment 2). The dowel test yielded no line differences in AFT, but HS/Npt mice developed slightly greater AFT to EtOH-induced LORR than HDID-1 (p < 0.05). These results suggest that HDID-1 mice exhibit aspects of blunted ataxic and hypnotic sensitivity to EtOH which may influence their high EtOH intake via DID, but do not display widely different development of AFT. These findings differ from previous findings with the high alcohol-preferring (HAP) selected mouse lines, suggesting that genetic predisposition for binge, versus other forms of excessive alcohol consumption, is associated with unique responses to EtOH-induced motor incoordination.Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research 02/2014; · 3.42 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We have previously shown that ethanol-naïve high-alcohol preferring (HAP) mice, genetically predis-posed to consume large quantities of alcohol, exhibited heightened sensitivity and more rapid acute functional tolerance (AFT) to alcohol-induced ataxia compared to low-alcohol preferring mice. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the effect of prior alcohol self-administration on these responses in HAP mice. Naïve male and female adult HAP mice from the second replicate of selection (HAP2) un-derwent 18 days of 24-h, 2-bottle choice drinking for 10% ethanol vs. water, or water only. After 18 days of fluid access, mice were tested for ataxic sensitivity and rapid AFT following a 1.75 g/kg injection of ethanol on a static dowel apparatus in Experiment 1. In Experiment 2, a separate group of mice was tested for more protracted AFT development using a dual-injection approach where a second, larger (2.0 g/kg) injection of ethanol was given following the initial recovery of performance on the task. HAP2 mice that had prior access to alcohol exhibited a blunted ataxic response to the acute alcohol challenge, but this pre-exposure did not alter rapid within-session AFT capacity in Experiment 1 or more protracted AFT capacity in Experiment 2. These findings suggest that the typically observed increase in alcohol consumption in these mice may be influenced by ataxic functional tolerance development, but is not mediated by a greater capacity for ethanol exposure to positively influence within-session ataxic tolerance.Alcohol 10/2014; · 2.26 Impact Factor