Use of medical and mental health care by World War II survivors in The Netherlands.
ABSTRACT This study examined the mental and medical health care utilization of World War II (WW II) survivors and the characteristics of survivors seeking professional health care. Forty seven years after the end of WW II, a random sample of 4,057 Dutch WW II survivors answered a four-page questionnaire; 1,461 persons subsequently answered an extensive follow-up questionnaire. Twenty-two percent had sought some form of health care for war-related complaints at some time since WW II. Most consultations were made in the 1940s. More consultations were made to general practitioners or to medical specialists as opposed to mental health specialists. Although the level of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms was most important for discriminating between help-seeking and non-help-seeking respondents, 59% of the highly-exposed respondents with PTSD had not sought professional help in the years 1990-1992. The results show the importance of primary health care in recognizing PTSD symptoms and referring survivors to the appropriate professional helper.
- Psychological Reports 12/2000; 87(7). · 0.44 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Schok et al. (2011) concluded that military veterans with "suspicious minds" are at risk for posttraumatic stress disorder. The authors recommended that negative appraisals of peacekeeping missions are prevented or changed to positive appraisals. In developing their argument, they misrepresented previous Dutch research as adopting a "psychopathological perspective." This commentary criticizes the medi-calization of posttraumatic stress responses that tends to ignore contextual factors and moral issues at stake. Also, the implicit assumptions of a "positive psychology" of posttraumatic stress in military veterans are discussed. Results on the process of attributing meaning are presented and related to the differences in theoretical per-spective. A contextualized psychology that appreciates human diversity without prejudice and that stimulates moral and cultural sensitivity is advocated. jasp_906 1439..1450Journal of Applied Social Psychology 06/2012; 42(6):1439-1450. · 0.83 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The present study examines the hypothesis that the experience of wartime stress may change a certain aspect of an individual's personality, in particular the personality trait of neuroticism defined as 'proneness to distressing emotional states' such as anxiety, depression, and anger. The subjects are a random community sample of 455 Dutch survivors of World War II. A theoretical model is formulated and tested by linear structural equation modeling. The relationship between wartime stress and the personality trait of neuroticism turned out to be fully mediated by the development of a negative world view. Therefore, empirical support was found for the notion that traumatic events force the survivor to change the personal theory of the world and make him, or her, more vulnerable to distressing emotional states and symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The results are discussed in a cognitive psychological perspective.Personality and Individual Differences 03/2002; 32(4):747-760. · 1.86 Impact Factor