[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Plant sterols and stanols derived from wood pulp and vegetable oils lower total and LDL cholesterol by inhibiting cholesterol absorption from the intestine in humans. Plant stanols are virtually unabsorbable, which makes them more ideal hypocholesterolemic agents than plant sterols. The esterification of plant stanols has allowed their incorporation into various foods such as margarine without changing the taste and texture of those foods. Plant stanol esters at a level of 2-3 g/d have been shown to reduce LDL cholesterol by 10-15% without side effects. Plant stanol esters appear to be a helpful dietary adjunct to a prudent diet to lower cholesterol.
Journal of Nutrition 01/2000; 129(12):2109-12. · 4.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: High serum LDL cholesterol concentration is a major risk factor for cardiovascular complications. This risk can be lowered by diet. In this respect foods containing plant sterol or stanol esters can be useful for mildly- and hypercholesteraemic subjects. Plant sterols and stanols, which are structurally related to cholesterol, decrease the incorporation of dietary and biliary cholesterol into micelles. This lowers cholesterol absorption. Furthermore, these components increase ABC-transporter expression, which may also contribute to the decreased cholesterol absorption. Consequently, cholesterol synthesis and LDL receptor activity increase, which ultimately leads to decreased serum LDL cholesterol concentrations. Animal studies have further shown that these dietary components may also lower atherosclerotic lesion development. Plant sterols and stanols also lower plasma lipid-standardized concentrations of the hydrocarbon carotenoids, but not those of the oxygenated cartenoids and tocopherols. Also, vitamin A and D concentrations are not affected. Although absorption of plant sterols and stanols (0.02-3.5%) is low compared to cholesterol (35-70%), small amounts are found in the circulation and may influence other physiological functions. However, there is no consistent evidence that plant sterols or stanols can change the risk of colon or prostate cancer, or immune status. In conclusion, plant sterols and stanols effectively reduce serum LDL cholesterol and atherosclerotic risk. In addition potential effects of plant sterols and stanols on other metabolic processes remain to be elucidated.
The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 08/2003; 14(7):362-9. · 4.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Consumption of foods and supplements enriched with plant sterols/stanols (PS) may help reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. In this review, we consider the effects of PS beyond LDL-C lowering. Plant sterols/stanols exert beneficial effects on other lipid variables, such as apolipoprotein (apo) B/apoAI ratio and, in some studies, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglycerides (TG). Plant sterols/stanols may also affect inflammatory markers, coagulation parameters, as well as platelet and endothelial function. Evidence also exists about a beneficial effect on oxidative stress, but this does not seem to be of greater degree than that expected from the LDL-C lowering. Many of these effects have been demonstrated in vitro and animal models. Some in vitro effects cannot be seen in vivo or in humans at usual doses. The epidemiological studies that evaluated the association of plasma PS concentration with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk do not provide a definitive answer. Long-term randomized placebo-controlled studies are required to clarify the effects of supplementation with PS on CVD risk and progression of atherosclerosis.
Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics 03/2010; 15(2):120-34. · 3.07 Impact Factor
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