[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Plant stanol ester has been shown in over 20 studies to be an effective and safe cholesterol-lowering substance. Randomized, placebo-controlled studies indicate that 2–3 g/day of plant stanol ester significantly reduces low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels by about 10%–20%. These results have been consistently found in various groups, including young adult and elderly men, pre- and postmenopausal women, children with and without familial hypercholesterolemia, type II diabetics, and patients with coronary heart disease. Plant stanol ester has also been shown to significantly augment the cholesterol-lowering effect of statins. No clinically significant adverse effects have been detected in studies or in general use in Finland, where foods fortified with plant stanol ester have been available since 1995. Results of studies with plant stanol ester have important implications for both the clinical and public health approaches to coronary heart disease risk reduction.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Consumption of foods and supplements enriched with plant sterols/stanols (PS) may help reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. In this review, we consider the effects of PS beyond LDL-C lowering. Plant sterols/stanols exert beneficial effects on other lipid variables, such as apolipoprotein (apo) B/apoAI ratio and, in some studies, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglycerides (TG). Plant sterols/stanols may also affect inflammatory markers, coagulation parameters, as well as platelet and endothelial function. Evidence also exists about a beneficial effect on oxidative stress, but this does not seem to be of greater degree than that expected from the LDL-C lowering. Many of these effects have been demonstrated in vitro and animal models. Some in vitro effects cannot be seen in vivo or in humans at usual doses. The epidemiological studies that evaluated the association of plasma PS concentration with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk do not provide a definitive answer. Long-term randomized placebo-controlled studies are required to clarify the effects of supplementation with PS on CVD risk and progression of atherosclerosis.
Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics 03/2010; 15(2):120-34. · 3.07 Impact Factor
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