Downregulation of endothelin B receptor in human melanoma cell lines parallel to differentiation genes.
ABSTRACT Normal human melanocytes have been shown to respond to the signal peptide endothelin by increased proliferation and melanin formation. Contradictory findings, however, have been reported about which of the two endothelin receptors (EDNRA or EDNRB) is expressed in normal melanocytes and melanoma cells. Moreover it was not clear whether malignant cells differ from their normal precursors in this respect. Screening a melanocyte cDNA library for genes downregulated in melanomas identified clones specific for EDNRB. Northern blots proved that the corresponding mRNA is generally expressed in cultures of human cutaneous melanocytes and congenital melanocytic nevus cells. In 16 of 17 melanoma cell lines, however, the expression of EDNRB mRNA was strongly downregulated. EDNRA was only weakly expressed and detectable by northern blotting in 12 of 17 cultures of benign melanocytic cells and four of 17 melanoma cell lines. Nested reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction proved several melanoma cell lines to be completely negative for EDNRA expression. Gene deletion as the cause of missing endothelin receptor expression was ruled out by genomic Southern blots. Receptor binding assays confirmed RNA data revealing 1.6 x 105 endothelin-1 binding sites per cell for a melanocyte culture and between 8.7 x 104 and 400 sites per cell for melanoma cell lines. Expression of pigmentation genes coding for tyrosinase, TRP-1 and TRP-2 correlated positively with that of EDNRB but negatively with EDNRA expression. EDNRB but not EDNRA expression is therefore typical for melanocytic cells, and downregulation of EDNRB seems to be an important characteristic of melanoma cells possibly related to malignancy or apoptosis.
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ABSTRACT: Both epigenetic and genetic alternations are involved in cancer formation. In this study, we have identified the methylation frequency of p16 and endothelin receptor type B (EDNRB) of 26 leukemia patients and 8 randomly selected normal blood donors in Taiwan. Promoter methylation of p16 was detected in 85% of acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), 83% in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) whereas no methylation was detected in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in blast crisis. Hypermethylation of EDNRB was observed in 92% of ALL, 75% AML and 100% in CML in blast crisis. No aberrant methylation of p16 and EDNRB was found in 8 normal blood donors. Taken together, aberrant methylation of p16 and EDNRB was highly prevalent in leukemia patients in Taiwan.The Chinese journal of physiology 03/2008; 51(1):27-31. · 0.56 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This review focuses on the role of the peripheral nervous system in cutaneous biology and disease. During the last few years, a modern concept of an interactive network between cutaneous nerves, the neuroendocrine axis, and the immune system has been established. We learned that neurocutaneous interactions influence a variety of physiological and pathophysiological functions, including cell growth, immunity, inflammation, pruritus, and wound healing. This interaction is mediated by primary afferent as well as autonomic nerves, which release neuromediators and activate specific receptors on many target cells in the skin. A dense network of sensory nerves releases neuropeptides, thereby modulating inflammation, cell growth, and the immune responses in the skin. Neurotrophic factors, in addition to regulating nerve growth, participate in many properties of skin function. The skin expresses a variety of neurohormone receptors coupled to heterotrimeric G proteins that are tightly involved in skin homeostasis and inflammation. This neurohormone-receptor interaction is modulated by endopeptidases, which are able to terminate neuropeptide-induced inflammatory or immune responses. Neuronal proteinase-activated receptors or transient receptor potential ion channels are recently described receptors that may have been important in regulating neurogenic inflammation, pain, and pruritus. Together, a close multidirectional interaction between neuromediators, high-affinity receptors, and regulatory proteases is critically involved to maintain tissue integrity and regulate inflammatory responses in the skin. A deeper understanding of cutaneous neuroimmunoendocrinology may help to develop new strategies for the treatment of several skin diseases.Physiological Reviews 11/2006; 86(4):1309-79. · 26.87 Impact Factor
Article: The endothelin/sarafotoxin-induced increase of the proliferation of undifferentiated and DMSO-differentiated GEM-81 goldfish erythrophoroma cells is mediated by ETB receptors.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Endothelins (ETs) and sarafotoxins (SRTXs) have been reported to exert ET(B)-mediated effects on vertebrate pigment cells. GEM-81 cell line, a red pigment cell-derived cutaneous tumor of the teleost Carassius auratus, expresses ET(B) receptors and can be differentiated with 1.5% DMSO treatment, thus constituting an useful model to investigate ET and SRTX effects on cultured fish pigment cells. Our aim was to characterize the pharmacology and biological effects mediated by ET receptors in DMSO-differentiated and undifferentiated cells. ET subtype receptors and their respective Ki values in both cell types were determined by competitive binding assays using (125)I ET-1 and BQ-485 (an ET(A) antagonist) or BQ-788 (an ET(B) antagonist). BQ-788, but not BQ-485, significantly reduced (125)I-ET-1 binding in both cell types, with similar low (Ki > nM) affinities. To determine the proliferation effects of ETs/SRTXs, cells were treated for 72 h with the hormones, and counted in a hemocytometer. The proliferation assays were repeated for SRTX S6c in the presence or absence of BQ-788. The results demonstrated that, with the exception of ET-1 (biphasic effect) and ET-3 (no significant effect) in undifferentiated GEM-81 cells, all the tested hormones induced increases in the proliferation of both types of cells. The hormones were equipotent in DMSO-differentiated cells, which exhibited increased sensitivity to ETs, but not to SRTXs, as compared with undifferentiated cells. The BQ-788 antagonistic effect was also exerted on the proliferation responses to SRTX S6c. These results corroborate the long and important evolutionary history of the ET/SRTX receptor system in vertebrate pigment cells.Pigment Cell Research 11/2004; 17(5):480-7. · 4.29 Impact Factor