A urine metabolic ratio of dextromethorphan and 3-methoxymorphinan as a probe for CYP3A activity and prediction of cyclosporine clearance in healthy volunteers.
ABSTRACT Dextromethorphan (DM) is metabolized in the body to dextrophan (DT) and 3-methoxymorphinan (3-MM) by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6 and 3A4, respectively, and cyclosporine (CsA) is a known substrate of CYP3A4. We attempted to determine if the urine metabolic ratio of DM:3-MM at various time intervals during 24 hours is predictive of CsA clearance in 11 healthy volunteers. Each subject took DM 30 mg orally, and serial urine samples were collected at 0-4, 4, and 4-24, and 0-24 hours. Subjects then were randomly assigned to receive either oral microemulsion CsA 5 mg/kg or intravenous CsA 1.5 mg/kg in a crossover fashion in a two-sequence pharmacokinetic study with a wash-out period of at least 7 days. A total of 17 blood samples were collected from each subject in the CsA pharmacokinetic study over 24 hours. Urinary DM, DT, and 3-MM were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a fluorescence detector, and blood CsA concentrations were analyzed by HPLC with ultraviolet detection. All subjects were extensive metabolizers of CYP2D6 as determined by metabolic ratios of DM:DT (mean+/-SD 0.0255+/-0.048). There was no correlation between CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 (p=0.38). The metabolic ratios of DM:3-MM in any urine samples during the 24-hour collection period did not predict CsA pharmacokinetics, although the 0-24 hour sample had an unexpected positive correlation with CsA clearance (r2 = 0.38, p<0.0001). The correlation was similar for metabolic ratios of DM:3-MM with intravenous CsA clearance (r2 = 0.5, p<0.0001). Metabolic ratios of DM:3-MM based on 24-hour cumulative urine collection did not appear to have clinical utility in predicting CYP3A activity measured by CsA clearance.
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ABSTRACT: The powder and alcoholic extract of dried seeds of garden cress were investigated for their effect on metabolic activity of CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 enzymes. In vitro and clinical studies were conducted on human liver microsomes and healthy human subjects, respectively. Dextromethorphan was used as a common marker for measuring metabolic activity of CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 enzymes. In in vitro studies, microsomes were incubated with NADPH in presence and absence of different concentrations of seeds extract. Clinical investigations were performed in two phases. In phase I, six healthy female volunteers were administered a single dose of dextromethorphan and in phase II volunteers were treated with seeds powder for seven days and dextromethorphan was administered with last dose. The O-demethylated and N-demethylated metabolites of dextromethorphan were measured as dextrorphan (DOR) and 3-methoxymorphinan (3-MM), respectively. Observations suggested that garden cress inhibits the formation of DOR and 3-MM metabolites. This inhibition of metabolite level was attributed to the inhibition of CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 activity. Garden cress decreases the level of DOR and 3-MM in urine and significantly increases the urinary metabolic ratio of DEX/DOR and DEX/3-MM. The findings suggested that garden cress seeds powder and ethanolic extract have the potential to interact with CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 substrates.Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 01/2014; 2014:634592. · 1.72 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Shoseiryuto (TJ-19) contains eight herbal components, including Ephedra sinica, and has been used for treating asthma and allergic rhinitis in Asian countries for several centuries. In this study, we investigated the potential herb-drug interaction of TJ-19 in healthy volunteers and attempted to ascertain whether or not the interaction might be affected by the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6 genotype. We assessed the effect of TJ-19 on the activities of CYP1A2, CYP2D6, CYP3A, xanthine oxidase (XO), and N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) in 37 healthy subjects. The subject pool consisted of 19 extensive metabolizers (EMs) with CYP2D6*Wild/*Wild, and 18 intermediate metabolizers (IMs) with CYP2D6*10/*10. The baseline activities of five enzymes were ascertained by their respective urinary metabolic ratios from an 8-h urine sample, after an oral 150-mg and 30-mg dose of caffeine and dextromethorphan were administrated, respectively. Thereafter, the subjects received 4.5 g of TJ-19 twice daily for 7 days, and underwent the same phenotyping test on postdose day 7. The activities of all enzymes examined did not differ before or after the 7-day administration of TJ-19. Consequently, the influence of the CYP2D6 genotype on the herb-drug interaction remained unsolved. Our results indicate that TJ-19 at the generally recommended dosage is unlikely to cause pharmacokinetic interaction with co-administered medications primarily dependent on the CYP1A2, CYP2D6, CYP3A, XO, and NAT2 pathways for elimination.European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 05/2007; 63(4):345-53. · 2.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To investigate the effects of black seed on the metabolic activities of CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 in human liver microsomes and in human subjects using dextromethorphan as a probe drug. CYP2D6-mediated O-demethylation and CYP3A4-mediated N-demethylation of dextromethorphan (DEX) to dextrorphan (DOR) and 3-methoxymorphinan (3-MM), respectively, were utilized to assess the metabolic activities of the two enzymatic pathways. In the in vitro experiments, DEX was incubated with microsomes and NADPH in absence or presence of black seed extract (10-100 microg/ml) and the formation of the metabolites were measured by HPLC. In the clinical study, four healthy volunteers received a single oral dose of DEX 30 mg alone in phase I, and along with last dose of black seed (2.5 g twice daily for seven days) in phase II. Activities of the two enzymes were evaluated based on the urinary metabolic ratios (MRs), which were calculated from eight-hour urine collections. DEX and its metabolites were assayed in urine samples by HPLC following a liquid-liquid extraction. Black seed extracts significantly inhibited the formation of both metabolites in microsomes. The maximum inhibition was observed at the highest extract concentration (i.e., 100 microg/ml), which was about 80% and 60% for DOR and 3-MM, respectively. In the clinical study, the urinary MRs of DEX/DOR and DEX/3-MM increased by factors of 127 and 1.6-fold, respectively, after consumption of black seed. Black seed significantly inhibited CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 mediated metabolism of DEX in human liver microsomes and healthy human volunteers indicating that it has the potential to interact with CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 substrates.Drug metabolism letters. 03/2010; 4(1):51-5.