Dextromethorphan (DM) is metabolized in the body to dextrophan (DT) and 3-methoxymorphinan (3-MM) by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6 and 3A4, respectively, and cyclosporine (CsA) is a known substrate of CYP3A4. We attempted to determine if the urine metabolic ratio of DM:3-MM at various time intervals during 24 hours is predictive of CsA clearance in 11 healthy volunteers. Each subject took DM 30 mg orally, and serial urine samples were collected at 0-4, 4, and 4-24, and 0-24 hours. Subjects then were randomly assigned to receive either oral microemulsion CsA 5 mg/kg or intravenous CsA 1.5 mg/kg in a crossover fashion in a two-sequence pharmacokinetic study with a wash-out period of at least 7 days. A total of 17 blood samples were collected from each subject in the CsA pharmacokinetic study over 24 hours. Urinary DM, DT, and 3-MM were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a fluorescence detector, and blood CsA concentrations were analyzed by HPLC with ultraviolet detection. All subjects were extensive metabolizers of CYP2D6 as determined by metabolic ratios of DM:DT (mean+/-SD 0.0255+/-0.048). There was no correlation between CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 (p=0.38). The metabolic ratios of DM:3-MM in any urine samples during the 24-hour collection period did not predict CsA pharmacokinetics, although the 0-24 hour sample had an unexpected positive correlation with CsA clearance (r2 = 0.38, p<0.0001). The correlation was similar for metabolic ratios of DM:3-MM with intravenous CsA clearance (r2 = 0.5, p<0.0001). Metabolic ratios of DM:3-MM based on 24-hour cumulative urine collection did not appear to have clinical utility in predicting CYP3A activity measured by CsA clearance.
"Determination of DEX metabolites in human liver microsomes and urine DEX and its metabolites were analyzed by Shimadzu Class- VPV 5.02 HPLC instrument using two slightly different analytical methods (Bendriss et al., 2001; Min et al., 1999). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Present study investigated the potential effects of Ferula asafetida resin on metabolic activities of human drug metabolizing enzymes: CYP2D6 and CYP3A4. Dextromethorphan (DEX) was used as a marker to assess metabolic activities of these enzymes, based on its CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 mediated metabolism to dextrorphan (DOR) and 3-methoxymorphinan (3-MM), respectively. In vitro study was conducted by incubating DEX with human liver microsomes and NADPH in presence or absence of Asafetida alcoholic extract. For clinical study, healthy human volunteers received a single dose of DEX alone (phase-I) and repeated the same dose after a washout period and four-day Asafetida treatment (phase-II). Asafetida showed a concentration dependent inhibition on DOR formation (in vitro) and a 33% increase in DEX/DOR urinary metabolic ratio in clinical study. For CYP3A4, formation of 3-MM in microsomes was increased at low Asafetida concentrations (10, 25, and 50 μg/ml) but slightly inhibited at the concentration of 100 μg/ml. On the other hand, in vivo observations revealed that Asafetida significantly increased DEX/3-MM urinary metabolic ratio. The findings of this study suggest that Asafetida may have significant effect on CYP3A4 metabolic activity. Therefore, using Ferula asafetida with CYP3A4 drug substrates should be cautioned especially those with narrow therapeutic index such as cyclosporine, tacrolimus and carbamazepine.
Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal 04/2014; 22(6). DOI:10.1016/j.jsps.2014.03.004 · 1.28 Impact Factor
"The analysis of DEX metabolites was performed on Shimadzu Class-VPV 5.02 instrument. Two distinct HPLC methods were adopted for analysis of DEX and its metabolites in human liver microsomes and the urine of human volunteers [23, 24]. In vitro microsomal analytes were eluted on a Nova-Pak phenyl column (5 μm, 150 × 3.9 mm) by using a mobile phase composed of a 75 : 25 mixture of acetonitrile and water (1.5% glacial acetic acid and 0.1% triethylamine), flowing at 1 mL/min. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The powder and alcoholic extract of dried seeds of garden cress were investigated for their effect on metabolic activity of CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 enzymes. In vitro and clinical studies were conducted on human liver microsomes and healthy human subjects, respectively. Dextromethorphan was used as a common marker for measuring metabolic activity of CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 enzymes. In in vitro studies, microsomes were incubated with NADPH in presence and absence of different concentrations of seeds extract. Clinical investigations were performed in two phases. In phase I, six healthy female volunteers were administered a single dose of dextromethorphan and in phase II volunteers were treated with seeds powder for seven days and dextromethorphan was administered with last dose. The O-demethylated and N-demethylated metabolites of dextromethorphan were measured as dextrorphan (DOR) and 3-methoxymorphinan (3-MM), respectively. Observations suggested that garden cress inhibits the formation of DOR and 3-MM metabolites. This inhibition of metabolite level was attributed to the inhibition of CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 activity. Garden cress decreases the level of DOR and 3-MM in urine and significantly increases the urinary metabolic ratio of DEX/DOR and DEX/3-MM. The findings suggested that garden cress seeds powder and ethanolic extract have the potential to interact with CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 substrates.
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 03/2014; 2014(15):634592. DOI:10.1155/2014/634592 · 1.88 Impact Factor
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