Requirement for reactive oxygen species in serum-induced and platelet-derived growth factor-induced growth of airway smooth muscle.
ABSTRACT Reactive oxygen species have been recently identified as important mediators of mitogenic signaling in a number of cell types. We therefore explored their role in mediating mitogenesis of airway smooth muscle. The antioxidants catalase, N-acetylcysteine, and probucol significantly reduced proliferation in primary cultures of rat tracheal smooth muscle stimulated with fetal bovine serum or platelet-derived growth factor, without affecting cell viability or inducing apoptosis. N-Acetylcysteine also significantly reduced serum-stimulated elevation of c-Fos but did not prevent the normal mitogen-induced increase in c-fos mRNA. Fractionation of ribosomes by sucrose density centrifugation and subsequent dot-blot Northern analysis revealed that antioxidants reduced incorporation of c-fos mRNA into the heaviest polyribosomes, suggesting redox regulation of c-fos mRNA translation. Serum treatment of monolayers produced a small but reproducibly significant rise in superoxide dismutase-inhibitable reduction of ferricytochrome c by myocyte monolayers. Serum-induced ferricytochrome c reduction, cellular proliferation, and c-Fos elevation were decreased by the flavoprotein-dependent enzyme inhibitor dipheyleneiodonium. Growth responses to fetal bovine serum and superoxide dismutase-inhibitable reduction of ferricytochrome c were not different between cultured tracheal myocytes from wild-type versus gp91 phagocyte oxidase null mice. These results suggest that mitogen stimulation of airway smooth muscle induces signal transduction of cell proliferation that is in part dependent on generation of partially reduced oxygen species, generated by an NADH or NADPH oxidoreductase that is different from the oxidase in phagocytic cells.
12/2011; , ISBN: 9780470650714
Article: Dicumarol inhibition of NADPH:quinone oxidoreductase induces growth inhibition of pancreatic cancer via a superoxide-mediated mechanism.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: NADPH:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO(1)), a homodimeric, ubiquitous, flavoprotein, catalyzes the two-electron reduction of quinones to hydroquinones. This reaction prevents the one-electron reduction of quinones by cytochrome P450 reductase and other flavoproteins that would result in oxidative cycling with generation of superoxide (O(2)(.-)). NQO(1) gene regulation may be up-regulated in some tumors to accommodate the needs of rapidly metabolizing cells to regenerate NAD(+). We hypothesized that pancreatic cancer cells would exhibit high levels of this enzyme, and inhibiting it would suppress the malignant phenotype. Reverse transcription-PCR, Western blots, and activity assays demonstrated that NQO(1) was up-regulated in the pancreatic cancer cell lines tested but present in very low amounts in the normal human pancreas. To determine whether inhibition of NQO(1) would alter the malignant phenotype, MIA PaCa-2 pancreatic cancer cells were treated with a selective inhibitor of NQO(1), dicumarol. Dicumarol increased intracellular production of O(2)(.-), as measured by hydroethidine staining, and inhibited cell growth. Both of these effects were blunted with infection of an adenoviral vector containing the cDNA for manganese superoxide dismutase. Dicumarol also inhibited cell growth, plating efficiency, and growth in soft agar. We conclude that inhibition of NQO(1) increases intracellular O(2)(.-) production and inhibits the in vitro malignant phenotype of pancreatic cancer. These mechanisms suggest that altering the intracellular redox environment of pancreatic cancer cells may inhibit growth and delineate a potential strategy directed against pancreatic cancer.Cancer Research 10/2003; 63(17):5513-20. · 7.86 Impact Factor
Article: NF-kappaB and AP-1 connection: mechanism of NF-kappaB-dependent regulation of AP-1 activity.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) and activator protein 1 (AP-1) transcription factors regulate many important biological and pathological processes. Activation of NF-kappaB is regulated by the inducible phosphorylation of NF-kappaB inhibitor IkappaB by IkappaB kinase. In contrast, Fos, a key component of AP-1, is primarily transcriptionally regulated by serum responsive factors (SRFs) and ternary complex factors (TCFs). Despite these different regulatory mechanisms, there is an intriguing possibility that NF-kappaB and AP-1 may modulate each other, thus expanding the scope of these two rapidly inducible transcription factors. To determine whether NF-kappaB activity is involved in the regulation of fos expression in response to various stimuli, we analyzed activity of AP-1 and expression of fos, fosB, fra-1, fra-2, jun, junB, and junD, as well as AP-1 downstream target gene VEGF, using MDAPanc-28 and MDAPanc-28/IkappaBalphaM pancreatic tumor cells and wild-type, IKK1-/-, and IKK2-/- murine embryonic fibroblast cells. Our results show that elk-1, a member of TCFs, is one of the NF-kappaB downstream target genes. Inhibition of NF-kappaB activity greatly decreased expression of elk-1. Consequently, the reduced level of activated Elk-1 protein by extracellular signal-regulated kinase impeded constitutive, serum-, and superoxide-inducible c-fos expression. Thus, our study revealed a distinct and essential role of NF-kappaB in participating in the regulation of elk-1, c-fos, and VEGF expression.Molecular and Cellular Biology 10/2004; 24(17):7806-19. · 5.53 Impact Factor