Neutrophil-derived proteins: selling cytokines by the pound.

Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Verona, Italy.
Advances in Immunology (Impact Factor: 5.53). 02/1999; 73:369-509. DOI: 10.1016/S0065-2776(08)60791-9
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: As part of the Immunological Genome Project (ImmGen), gene expression was determined in unstimulated (circulating) mouse neutrophils and three populations of neutrophils activated in vivo, with comparison among these populations and to other leukocytes. Activation conditions included serum-transfer arthritis (mediated by immune complexes), thioglycollate-induced peritonitis, and uric acid-induced peritonitis. Neutrophils expressed fewer genes than any other leukocyte population studied in ImmGen, and down-regulation of genes related to translation was particularly striking. However, genes with expression relatively specific to neutrophils were also identified, particularly three genes of unknown function: Stfa2l1, Mrgpr2a and Mrgpr2b. Comparison of genes up-regulated in activated neutrophils led to several novel findings: increased expression of genes related to synthesis and use of glutathione and of genes related to uptake and metabolism of modified lipoproteins, particularly in neutrophils elicited by thioglycollate; increased expression of genes for transcription factors in the Nr4a family, only in neutrophils elicited by serum-transfer arthritis; and increased expression of genes important in synthesis of prostaglandins and response to leukotrienes, particularly in neutrophils elicited by uric acid. Up-regulation of genes related to apoptosis, response to microbial products, NFkB family members and their regulators, and MHC class II expression was also seen, in agreement with previous studies. A regulatory model developed from the ImmGen data was used to infer regulatory genes involved in the changes in gene expression during neutrophil activation. Among 64, mostly novel, regulatory genes predicted to influence these changes in gene expression, Irf5 was shown to be important for optimal secretion of IL-10, IP-10, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, and TNF-α by mouse neutrophils in vitro after stimulation through TLR9. This data-set and its analysis using the ImmGen regulatory model provide a basis for additional hypothesis-based research on the importance of changes in gene expression in neutrophils in different conditions.
    PLoS ONE 10/2014; 9(10):e108553. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Polymorphonuclear neutrophils, besides their involvement in primary defense against infections - mainly through phagocytosis, generation of toxic molecules, release of enzymes, and formation of extracellular traps - are also becoming increasingly important for their contribution to the fine regulation in development of inflammatory and immune responses. These latter functions of neutrophils occur, in part, via their de novo production and release of a large variety of cytokines, including chemotactic cytokines (chemokines). Accordingly, the improvement in technologies for molecular and functional cell analysis, along with concomitant advances in cell purification techniques, have allowed the identification of a continuously growing list of neutrophil-derived cytokines, as well as the characterization of their biological implications in vitro and/or in vivo. This short review summarizes crucial concepts regarding the modalities of expression, release, and regulation of neutrophil-derived cytokines. It also highlights examples illustrating the potential implications of neutrophil-derived cytokines according to recent observations made in humans and/or in experimental animal models.
    Frontiers in Immunology 10/2014; 5:508.
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    ABSTRACT: Rapid enhancement of phagocyte functionality is a hallmark of neutrophil priming. GeneChip analyses unveiled elevated CD54, dectin-2, and IL-1β mRNA expression by neutrophils isolated from inflammatory sites. In fact, CD54 and dectin-2 protein expression was detected on neutrophils recovered from skin, peritoneal, and lung inflammation lesions but not on those in bone marrow or peripheral blood. Neutrophils increased CD54 and dectin-2 mRNA during migration in Boyden chambers and acquired CD54 and dectin-2 surface expression after subsequent exposure to GM-CSF. Neutrophils purified from IL-1β promoter-driven DsRed-transgenic mice acquired DsRed signals during cell migration or exposure to GM-CSF. CD54 and dectin-2 were expressed by DsRed(+) (but not DsRed(-)) neutrophils in GM-CSF-supplemented cultures, and neutrophils recovered from inflammatory sites exhibited strong DsRed signals. The dynamic process of neutrophil priming was studied in chemically induced inflammatory skin lesions by monitoring DsRed expression using confocal microscopy. A majority (>80%) of Ly6G(+) neutrophils expressed DsRed, and those DsRed(+)/Ly6G(+) cells exhibited crawling motion with a higher velocity compared with their DsRed(-)/Ly6G(+) counterparts. This report unveils motile behaviors of primed neutrophils in living animals. We propose that neutrophil priming occurs in a sequential manner with rapid enhancement of phagocyte functionality, followed by CD54 and dectin-2 mRNA and protein expression, IL-1β promoter activation, and accelerated motility. Not only do these findings provide a new conceptual framework for our understanding of the process of neutrophil priming, they also unveil new insights into the pathophysiology of many inflammatory disorders that are characterized by neutrophil infiltration. Copyright © 2014 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.
    Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). 12/2014;


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