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Cassatella, M. A. Neutrophil-derived proteins: selling cytokines by the pound. Adv. Immunol. 73, 369-509

Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Verona, Italy.
Advances in Immunology (Impact Factor: 5.53). 02/1999; 73:369-509. DOI: 10.1016/S0065-2776(08)60791-9
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    • "In the past few years, however, this limited view has been challenged and it is now clear that the function of neutrophils cannot be merely explained in terms of phagocytosis, killing and degradation of internalized pathogens [34] [35]. In fact, neutrophils produce a broad array of cytokines and chemokines [36], modulate the function of immune cells such as macrophages, dendritic cells, NK cells, and conventional T cells, and are also able to acquire different functional profiles [37] [38] [39] [40] [41], a matter that has been the subject of many studies in the field of anti-tumor immunity [42]. "
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    • "The pattern of cytokines production by peripheral neutrophils greatly differs depending on the agonist, co-stimulation, and ligands present. The mechanisms of cytokine production are well described (Cassatella, 1999; Witko-Sarsat et al., 2000). The most potent inducers of neutrophils are presented in Table 2. "
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    ABSTRACT: Neutrophils are one of the main types of effector cells in the innate immune system. Neutrophils play a major role in fighting diseases and are recruited almost immediately to sites of infection. The neutrophils have a variety of defensive mechanisms and their high affinity to chemotactic agents makes them ideal in the defense against pathogens. New functions of neutrophils have been discovered over the years. The latest role of neutrophils is neutrophil traps, which are a new component of innate anti-microbial immunity. Before neutrophils can effectively kill microorganisms they undergo a series of complex developmental processes.
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    • "By contrast, tumor-associated polymorphonuclear neutrophils (TAN) have received less attention, likely because granulocytes have been traditionally viewed as short-lived cells, only playing a crucial role in host defense toward microorganisms for their capacity to release a battery of proteases and bactericidal substances, as well as to generate reactive oxygen species [5]. However, recent studies uncovering the capability of neutrophils to transcribe cytokine-and chemokine-encoding genes [6] have greatly broadened our knowledge on their potential functional role, even in unsuspected pathological processes such as in tumor [7]. Consistently, neutrophils have been often found as components of the inflammatory infiltrate characterizing many models of human and murine cancers [8] in which neutrophilattracting CXC-chemokines [9] and/or pro-survival factors [10] are constitutively produced by tumor and surrounding stroma cells [9] [11]. "
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