To compare the fundamental structure of the human liver, in relation to that of the rat a comparative study was performed, in which 20 rat livers and 78 human cadaver livers were examined. The rat livers had four lobes (left, middle, right, and caudate). The left and middle lobes formed a single lobe but the middle lobe had a deep notch to which the round ligament attached. The right lobe was split into two sub-lobes and the caudate lobe was divided into the paracaval portion and the Spiegel lobe, which was split into two sub-lobes. The left, right, and caudate lobes had one primary portal branch, whereas the middle lobe had two portal branches. The left and the right sub- and caudate lobes had one large hepatic vein each, whereas three large hepatic veins were observed in the middle lobe. Based on the ramifying patterns of the portal and hepatic veins, the rat middle lobe possessed left and right hepatic components and a main portal fissure. The following rat hepatic lobes were equivalent to the following human liver segments: the left lobe to segment II; the middle lobe to segments III, IV, V, and VIII; and the right lobe to segments VI and VII. The fundamental structures of rat and human livers were similar, and the findings demonstrated a new interpretation of the anatomy of the human liver.
"For example, while the left liver lobe (according to the NAV) was correctly divided into the left lateral and left medial liver lobe by Popesko et al. , other authors divided the left liver lobe into the left lateral lobe and the left part of the medial lobe , , , . Likewise, the lobes of the right side of the murine liver have been found to be accompanied by different adjectives including “posterior”, “anterior“, “inferior“, “superior”, “upper” and “lower” by different authors , , , , , , , again creating confusion. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Various murine models are currently used to study acute and chronic pathological processes of the liver, and the efficacy of novel therapeutic regimens. The increasing availability of high-resolution small animal imaging modalities presents researchers with the opportunity to precisely identify and describe pathological processes of the liver. To meet the demands, the objective of this study was to provide a three-dimensional illustration of the macroscopic anatomical location of the murine liver lobes and hepatic vessels using small animal imaging modalities. We analysed micro-CT images of the murine liver by integrating additional information from the published literature to develop comprehensive illustrations of the macroscopic anatomical features of the murine liver and hepatic vasculature. As a result, we provide updated three-dimensional illustrations of the macroscopic anatomy of the murine liver and hepatic vessels using micro-CT. The information presented here provides researchers working in the field of experimental liver disease with a comprehensive, easily accessable overview of the macroscopic anatomy of the murine liver.
PLoS ONE 02/2012; 7(2):e31179. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0031179 · 3.23 Impact Factor
"Bader). significant differences in organ size, function, and geometry compared to the human liver (Kogure et al., 1999) and rat hepatocytes are not necessarily a good model for human metabolism (Hanson, 1980; Agius et al., 1987). Moreover, there is a gall bladder in human but not in rat. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interspecies difference is an important issue in toxicology research. We compared the potential in vitro metabolism of human, porcine and rat hepatocytes over 2 weeks in culture in an organotypical culture model which reflects the in vivo situation. All three species show similar LDH-rates. Albumin measurements showed that rat cells are about twice as active as human and porcine hepatocytes. The ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity of the rat hepatocytes is with about 14 microU/10(6)cells distinctly higher than those of porcine and human cells (1.8 and 0.5 microU/10(6)cells respectively), furthermore, the activity of the rat EROD increases slightly during the prolonged time in culture, whereas those of porcine and human enzymes slightly decrease. Concerning ethoxycoumarin-O-deethylase (ECOD), the enzyme activities are found to be in three different ranges where rat cells show the highest activity with 66 microU/10(6)cells, porcine hepatocytes exhibit an activity of about 23 microU/10(6)cells, and human activity is lowest with 0.7 microU/10(6)cells. All three species show a similar decreasing trend of ECOD during the period of study. Regarding the biotransformation of testosterone, human and porcine liver cells form three major metabolites whereas rat cells form a mixture of all measured metabolites. Hence, in vitro metabolism using porcine hepatocytes would be much more scientific sense than one using rat hepatocytes since the metabolic pathways are much closer to human metabolism.
"The hepatic lobes of the rat appear to have similar fundamental 27 portal and hepatic venous systems, and thus segments, comparable to that of human liver (Kogure et al., 1999). The vascular systems to or from lobes show individual variations in humans as well as in rats (Kogure et al., 1999; MacSween et al., 2002). At any given moment the liver contains blood equivalent to approximately 25% of the cardiac output (Burt and Day, 2002). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The liver is structurally and functionally complex and has been considered second only to brain in its complexity. Many mysteries still exist in this heterogeneous tissue whose functional unit of the lobule has continued to stump morphologists for over 300 years. The primary lobule, proposed by Matsumoto in 1979, has been gaining acceptance as the functional unit of the liver over other conceptual views because it's based on vessel architecture and includes the classic lobule as a secondary feature. Although hepatocytes comprise almost 80% of the liver, there are at least another dozen cell types, many of which provide "cross-talk" and play important functional roles in the normal and diseased liver. The distribution and functional roles of all cells in the liver must be carefully considered in both the analysis and interpretation of research data, particularly data in the area of genomics and "phenotypic anchoring" of gene expression results. Discoveries regarding the functional heterogeneity of the various liver cell types, including hepatocytes, hepatic stellate cells, sinusoidal endothelia, and Kupffer cells, are providing new insights into our understanding of the development, prevention and treatment of liver disease. For example, functional differences along zonal patterns (centrilobular or periportal) have been demonstrated for sinusoidal endothelium, Kupffer cells, and hepatocytes and can explain the gradients and manifestations of disease observed within lobules. Intralobular gradients of bile uptake, glycogen depletion, glutamine synthetase, and carboxylesterase by hepatocytes; widened fenestrations in centrilobular sinusoidal lining cells; and differences in the components of centrilobular extracellular matrix or function of Kupffer cells have been demonstrated. Awareness of the complexities and heterogeneity of the liver will add to a greater understanding of liver function and disease processes that lead to toxicity, cancer, and other diseases.
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