Article

HMG-1 as a late mediator of endotoxin lethality in mice.

Department of Emergency Medicine and Department of Surgery, North Shore University Hospital-New York University School of Medicine, Manhasset, NY 11030, USA.
Science (Impact Factor: 31.03). 08/1999; 285(5425):248-51. DOI: 10.1126/science.285.5425.248
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Endotoxin, a constituent of Gram-negative bacteria, stimulates macrophages to release large quantities of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin-1 (IL-1), which can precipitate tissue injury and lethal shock (endotoxemia). Antagonists of TNF and IL-1 have shown limited efficacy in clinical trials, possibly because these cytokines are early mediators in pathogenesis. Here a potential late mediator of lethality is identified and characterized in a mouse model. High mobility group-1 (HMG-1) protein was found to be released by cultured macrophages more than 8 hours after stimulation with endotoxin, TNF, or IL-1. Mice showed increased serum levels of HMG-1 from 8 to 32 hours after endotoxin exposure. Delayed administration of antibodies to HMG-1 attenuated endotoxin lethality in mice, and administration of HMG-1 itself was lethal. Septic patients who succumbed to infection had increased serum HMG-1 levels, suggesting that this protein warrants investigation as a therapeutic target.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
196 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is defined as an acute-onset, progressive, hypoxic condition with radiographic bilateral lung infiltration, which develops after several diseases or injuries, and is not derived from hydrostatic pulmonary edema. One specific pathological finding of ARDS is diffuse alveolar damage. In 2012, in an effort to increase diagnostic specificity, a revised definition of ARDS was published in JAMA. However, no new parameters or biomarkers were adopted by the revised definition. Discriminating between ARDS and other similar diseases is critically important; however, only a few biomarkers are currently available for diagnostic purposes. Furthermore, predicting the severity, response to therapy, or outcome of the illness is also important for developing treatment strategies for each patient. However, the PaO2/FIO2 ratio is currently the sole clinical parameter used for this purpose. In parallel with progress in understanding the pathophysiology of ARDS, various humoral factors induced by inflammation and molecules derived from activated cells or injured tissues have been shown as potential biomarkers that may be applied in clinical practice. In this review, the current understanding of the basic pathophysiology of ARDS and associated candidate biomarkers will be discussed.
    Journal of intensive care. 01/2014; 2(1):32.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Nitric oxide donors and inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) may decrease ischemia/reperfusion injury as reported in animal and human models. We investigated whether the attenuation of reperfusion injury, seen by others, in patients undergoing knee arthroplasty could be reproduced when patients had spinal anesthesia. 45 consecutive patients were randomized into three groups (n = 15). Groups 1 and 3 were receiving iNO 80 ppm or placebo (nitrogen, N2) throughout the entire operation, and group 2 only received iNO in the beginning and at the end of the operation. Blood samples were collected before surgery, at the end of the surgery, and 2 hours postoperatively. Muscle biopsies were taken from quadriceps femoris muscle before and after ischemia. There were no increases in plasma levels of soluble adhesion molecules: ICAM, VCAM, P-selectin, E-selectin, or of HMGB1, in any of the groups. There were low numbers of CD68+ macrophages and of endothelial cells expression of ICAM, VCAM, and P-selectin in the muscle analyzed by immunohistochemistry, prior to and after ischemia. No signs of endothelial cell activation or inflammatory response neither systemically nor locally could be detected. The absence of inflammatory response questions this model of ischemia/reperfusion, but may also be related to the choice of anesthetic method EudraCTnr.
    Mediators of Inflammation 01/2014; 2014:620281. · 3.88 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To examine circulating growth factor concentrations in patients with acute pancreatitis (AP) and chronic pancreatitis (CP), and walled-off pancreatic necrosis (WOPN).
    World journal of gastroenterology : WJG. 09/2014; 20(36):13127-32.

Full-text

Download
367 Downloads
Available from
May 26, 2014