Recovery as a psychological construct

University of Chicago Center for Psychiatric Rehabilitation, Tinley Park, IL 60477, USA.
Community Mental Health Journal (Impact Factor: 1.03). 07/1999; 35(3):231-9. DOI: 10.1023/A:1018741302682
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Mental health advocates have proposed recovery as a vision for severe mental illness. The purpose of this study is to examine psychometric characteristics of a measure of the psychological construct. Thirty-five participants in a partial hospitalization program were administered the Recovery Scale and measures of quality of life, social support, self-esteem, consumer empowerment, psychiatric symptoms, needs and resources, global functioning, and verbal intelligence. Results showed the scale to have satisfactory test-retest reliability and internal consistency. Analysis of the concurrent validity of the Recovery Scale showed recovery to be positively associated with self-esteem, empowerment, social support, and quality of life. It was inversely associated with psychiatric symptoms and age. Implications of these findings for a psychological model of recovery are discussed.

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    • "Items are rated on a 5-point scale (1 = strongly disagree to 5 = strongly agree), with lower scores reflecting more defeatist beliefs about one's ability to succeed and attain life goals. The RAS has shown good test–retest reliability and internal consistency in individuals with severe mental illness (Corrigan et al., 1999), and the goal and success orientation subscale demonstrated adequate internal consistency in the current sample (α = 0.83). "
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    ABSTRACT: The recalcitrance of negative symptoms in the face of pharmacologic treatment has spurred interest in understanding the psychological factors that contribute to their formation and persistence. Accordingly, this study investigated whether deficits in metacognition, or the ability to form integrated ideas about oneself, others, and the world, prospectively predicted levels of negative symptoms independent of deficits in neurocognition, affect recognition and defeatist beliefs. Participants were 53 adults with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder. Prior to entry into a rehabilitation program, all participants completed concurrent assessments of metacognition with the Metacognitive Assessment Scale-Abbreviated, negative symptoms with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, neurocognition with the MATRICS battery, affect recognition with the Bell Lysaker Emotion Recognition Task, and one form of defeatist beliefs with the Recovery Assessment Scale. Negative symptoms were then reassessed one week, 9weeks, and 17weeks after entry into the program. A mixed effects regression model revealed that after controlling for baseline negative symptoms, a general index of neurocognition, defeatist beliefs and capacity for affect recognition, lower levels of metacognition predicted higher levels of negative symptoms across all subsequent time points. Poorer metacognition was able to predict later levels of elevated negative symptoms even after controlling for initial levels of negative symptoms. Results may suggest that metacognitive deficits are a risk factor for elevated levels of negative symptoms in the future. Clinical implications are also discussed. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Schizophrenia Research 07/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.schres.2015.06.015 · 3.92 Impact Factor
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    • "The items demonstrated the participants' sense of recovery, which encompass domains such as personal confidence, optimism in the future, and the attainment of personal objectives, managing strategies for personal well-being and not feeling dominated by the illness or its symptoms. Corrigan et al. (1999), in a study with 35 participants, reported adequate test–retest reliability (r .88) and excellent internal reliability for the RAS total score, and positively associated it with empowerment and quality of life, and inversely with symptoms. "
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to develop the Portuguese version of the Recovery Assessment Scale (RAS-P), and to assess the validity of the findings using the revised test, with 213 users from 5 nonprofit community-based mental health organizations. Participants in the assessment completed a self-reported survey investigating their sense of personal recovery, personal empowerment, capabilities achievement, psychiatric symptoms' frequency, and demographic data. Evidence from exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses using the 24-item version of the test, validated a 4-factor structure for the RAS-P model based on the dimensions of Personal Goals and Hope, Managing Help Needs, Supportive Interpersonal Relationships, and Life Beyond Symptoms, consistent with components of the recovery process. Convergent and discriminant validity was also achieved using bivariate correlation coefficients among the 4 subscales' scores, between the overall scale and the subscales, and in relation to external variables. Findings allowed for the interpretation that the RAS-P is measuring a particular psychological construct, which is different from symptoms of the mental illness. A hypothesized significant association with personal empowerment and with capabilities achievement was demonstrated. Positive association was also found between participants' use of recovery-oriented services such as independent housing or supported employment programs. The RAS-P scores also revealed excellent internal consistency for the overall scale (α = .90), and good consistency for the subscales (>.75), which attest to its precision in measurement. In conclusion, the study proved the RAS-P a reliable and useful tool in the context of the community mental health practice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
    Psychological Assessment 06/2015; DOI:10.1037/pas0000176 · 2.99 Impact Factor
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    • "Although the primary predictor variable was the subscale reflecting expectancies of success, we also examined the other subscales of the RAS to explore whether the relationship was specific to expectancies of success or also applicable to other subscales of the RAS. The RAS has shown good test–retest reliability and internal consistency in individuals with severe mental disorders (Corrigan et al., 1999). In the current sample, the internal consistency for each of the RAS subscales was adequate: expectancies of success subscale (α ¼.75), personal confidence and hope (α ¼ .88), "
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    ABSTRACT: Negative symptoms are often enduring and lead to poor functional outcomes in individuals with schizophrenia. The cognitive model of negative symptoms proposes that low expectancies of success contribute to the development and maintenance of negative symptoms; however, longitudinal investigations assessing these beliefs and negative symptoms are needed. The current study examined whether an individual's baseline expectancies of success - one's beliefs about future success and goal attainment - predicted negative symptoms reduction over 18 months in individuals with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (n=118). Data were collected at baseline, 9 months, and 18 months as part of a randomized controlled trial of Illness Management and Recovery. A mixed effects regression analysis revealed a significant reduction in negative symptoms over time, with a significant interaction effect between time and baseline expectancies of success. After controlling for baseline negative symptoms, demographic variables, and treatment conditions, those with high and moderate baseline expectancies of success evidenced a significant reduction in negative symptoms at 18 months, while those with low baseline expectancies of success did not evidence reduced negative symptoms. Findings support the cognitive model of negative symptoms and suggest that expectancies of success may be a useful treatment target for interventions aimed at reducing negative symptoms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    06/2015; 229(1-2). DOI:10.1016/j.psychres.2015.06.022
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