Somatic PKD2 mutations in individual kidney and liver cysts support a "two-hit" model of cystogenesis in type 2 autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.
ABSTRACT An intriguing feature of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the focal and sporadic formation of renal and extrarenal cysts. Recent documentation of somatic PKD1 mutations in cystic epithelia of patients with germ-line PKD1 mutations suggests a "two-hit" model for cystogenesis in type 1 ADPKD. This study tests whether the same mechanism for cystogenesis might also occur in type 2 ADPKD. Genomic DNA was obtained from 54 kidney and liver cysts from three patients with known germ-line PKD2 mutations, using procedures that minimize contamination of cells from noncystic tissue. Using intragenic and microsatellite markers, these cyst samples were screened for loss of heterozygosity. The same samples were also screened for somatic mutations in five of the 15 exons in PKD2 by single-stranded conformational polymorphism analysis. Loss of heterozygosity was found in five cysts, and unique intragenic mutations were found in seven other cysts. In 11 of these 12 cysts, it was also determined that the somatic mutation occurred nonrandomly in the copy of PKD2 inherited from the unaffected parent. These findings support the "two-hit" model as a unified mechanism for cystogenesis in ADPKD. In this model, the requirement of a somatic mutation as the rate-limiting step for individual cyst formation has potential therapeutic implications.
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ABSTRACT: Mutations in TRPP2 (polycystin-2) cause autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), a common genetic disorder characterized by progressive development of fluid-filled cysts in the kidney and other organs. TRPP2 is a Ca(2+)-permeable nonselective cation channel that displays an amazing functional versatility at the cellular level. It has been implicated in the regulation of diverse physiological functions including mechanosensation, cell proliferation, polarity, and apoptosis. TRPP2 localizes to different subcellular compartments, such as the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), the plasma membrane and the primary cilium. The channel appears to have distinct functions in different subcellular compartments. This functional compartmentalization is thought to contribute to the observed versatility and specificity of TRPP2-mediated Ca(2+) signaling. In the primary cilium, TRPP2 has been suggested to function as a mechanosensitive channel that detects fluid flow in the renal tubule lumen, supporting the proposed role of the primary cilium as the unifying pathogenic concept for cystic kidney disease. This review summarizes the known and emerging functions of TRPP2, focusing on the question of how channel function translates into complex morphogenetic programs regulating tubular structure.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 09/2007; 1772(8):836-50. DOI:10.1016/j.bbadis.2007.01.003 · 4.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In searching for a putative third gene for autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), we studied the genetic inheritance of a large family (NFL10) previously excluded from linkage to both the PKD1 locus and the PKD2 locus. We screened 48 members of the NFL10 pedigree, by ultrasonography, and genotyped them, with informative markers, at both the PKD1 locus and the PKD2 locus. Twenty-eight of 48 individuals assessed were affected with ADPKD. Inspection of the haplotypes of these individuals suggested the possibility of bilineal disease from independently segregating PKD1 and PKD2 mutations. Using single-stranded conformational analysis, we screened for and found a PKD2 mutation (i.e., 2152delA; L736X) in 12 affected pedigree members. Additionally, when the disease status of these individuals was coded as "unknown" in linkage analysis, we also found, with markers at the PKD1 locus, significant LOD scores (i.e., >3.0). These findings strongly support the presence of a PKD1 mutation in 15 other affected pedigree members, who lack the PKD2 mutation. Two additional affected individuals had trans-heterozygous mutations involving both genes, and they had renal disease that was more severe than that in affected individuals who had either mutation alone. This is the first documentation of bilineal disease in ADPKD. In humans, trans-heterozygous mutations involving both PKD1 and PKD2 are not necessarily embryonically lethal. However, the disease associated with the presence of both mutations appears to be more severe than the disease associated with either mutation alone. The presence of bilineal disease as a confounder needs to be considered seriously in the search for the elusive PKD3 locus.The American Journal of Human Genetics 02/2001; 68(2):355-63. DOI:10.1086/318188 · 10.99 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Mutation screening of the major autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) locus, PKD1, has proved difficult because of the large transcript and complex reiterated gene region. We have developed methods, employing long polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and specific reverse transcription-PCR, to amplify all of the PKD1 coding area. The gene was screened for mutations in 131 unrelated patients with ADPKD, using the protein-truncation test and direct sequencing. Mutations were identified in 57 families, and, including 24 previously characterized changes from this cohort, a detection rate of 52.3% was achieved in 155 families. Mutations were found in all areas of the gene, from exons 1 to 46, with no clear hotspot identified. There was no significant difference in mutation frequency between the single-copy and duplicated areas, but mutations were more than twice as frequent in the 3' half of the gene, compared with the 5' half. The majority of changes were predicted to truncate the protein through nonsense mutations (32%), insertions or deletions (29.6%), or splicing changes (6.2%), although the figures were biased by the methods employed, and, in sequenced areas, approximately 50% of all mutations were missense or in-frame. Studies elsewhere have suggested that gene conversion may be a significant cause of mutation at PKD1, but only 3 of 69 different mutations matched PKD1-like HG sequence. A relatively high rate of new PKD1 mutation was calculated, 1.8x10-5 mutations per generation, consistent with the many different mutations identified (69 in 81 pedigrees) and suggesting significant selection against mutant alleles. The mutation detection rate, in this study, of >50% is comparable to that achieved for other large multiexon genes and shows the feasibility of genetic diagnosis in this disorder.The American Journal of Human Genetics 01/2001; 68(1):46-63. DOI:10.1086/316939 · 10.99 Impact Factor