Article

New solutions for peritoneal dialysis in adult and pediatric patients.

Renal Division, Baxter Healthcare, McGaw Park, Illinois, USA.
Peritoneal dialysis international: journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis (Impact Factor: 2.21). 02/1999; 19 Suppl 2:S429-34.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The standard PD solutions used today contain physiological electrolyte profiles similar to that of interstitial fluids and are supplemented with glucose as the osmotic agent. Improvements in solution composition during the last 20 years have been largely restricted to minor changes in buffer and electrolyte levels. Newer PD solutions, on the other hand, are designed to manage comorbidities associated with patients on maintenance dialysis, to tailor the ultrafiltration profile based upon dwell time, and to better preserve peritoneal membrane function and host defenses. The evidence to date indicates that, in malnourished PD patients (children and adults), IP amino acids improve protein nutritional status, particularly if low protein intakes are a cause of the malnutrition. The availability of glucose polymers allows the clinician to complement standard glucose-based formulations with one that can provide improved ultrafiltration in both CAPD and APD patients for long dwells, and in patients experiencing ultrafiltration loss owing to a large effective peritoneal surface area. Owing to the reduced calorie and carbohydrate load, glucose polymers may also offer long-term metabolic advantages. Although the control of acid-base balance can be well managed in the vast majority of patients with a 35-40 mmol/L lactate solution, the development and clinical evaluation of bicarbonate-based solutions is underway as a result of concern over the potentially bioincompatible nature of acidic lactate formulations. To date, in vitro, ex vivo, and limited clinical studies show that such formulations, and in particular bicarbonate/lactate combinations are efficacious and well tolerated, and show improved peritoneal cell function versus conventional solutions. In conclusion, ongoing research and development has produced a new generation of PD solutions that, to various degrees, meet different criteria established for an ideal PD solution for chronic adult and pediatric patients on PD. These criteria include good clearance and ultrafiltration, supply of nutrition, iso-osmolality, physiologic pH, bicarbonate buffer, and minimal absorption of the osmotic agent. Several of the new solutions have already demonstrated clinical utility in controlled clinical trials and are commercially available in Europe. Wider clinical use will further add to our understanding of the impact of these formulations on patient outcomes.

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