New solutions for peritoneal dialysis in adult and pediatric patients.

Renal Division, Baxter Healthcare, McGaw Park, Illinois, USA.
Peritoneal dialysis international: journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis (Impact Factor: 2.2). 02/1999; 19 Suppl 2:S429-34.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The standard PD solutions used today contain physiological electrolyte profiles similar to that of interstitial fluids and are supplemented with glucose as the osmotic agent. Improvements in solution composition during the last 20 years have been largely restricted to minor changes in buffer and electrolyte levels. Newer PD solutions, on the other hand, are designed to manage comorbidities associated with patients on maintenance dialysis, to tailor the ultrafiltration profile based upon dwell time, and to better preserve peritoneal membrane function and host defenses. The evidence to date indicates that, in malnourished PD patients (children and adults), IP amino acids improve protein nutritional status, particularly if low protein intakes are a cause of the malnutrition. The availability of glucose polymers allows the clinician to complement standard glucose-based formulations with one that can provide improved ultrafiltration in both CAPD and APD patients for long dwells, and in patients experiencing ultrafiltration loss owing to a large effective peritoneal surface area. Owing to the reduced calorie and carbohydrate load, glucose polymers may also offer long-term metabolic advantages. Although the control of acid-base balance can be well managed in the vast majority of patients with a 35-40 mmol/L lactate solution, the development and clinical evaluation of bicarbonate-based solutions is underway as a result of concern over the potentially bioincompatible nature of acidic lactate formulations. To date, in vitro, ex vivo, and limited clinical studies show that such formulations, and in particular bicarbonate/lactate combinations are efficacious and well tolerated, and show improved peritoneal cell function versus conventional solutions. In conclusion, ongoing research and development has produced a new generation of PD solutions that, to various degrees, meet different criteria established for an ideal PD solution for chronic adult and pediatric patients on PD. These criteria include good clearance and ultrafiltration, supply of nutrition, iso-osmolality, physiologic pH, bicarbonate buffer, and minimal absorption of the osmotic agent. Several of the new solutions have already demonstrated clinical utility in controlled clinical trials and are commercially available in Europe. Wider clinical use will further add to our understanding of the impact of these formulations on patient outcomes.

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    ABSTRACT: In the present study, we surveyed 425 members of the American Pediatric Surgical Association and the Canadian Association of Pediatric Surgeons to identify prevalent operative techniques used in the placement of peritoneal dialysis catheters by pediatric surgeons. Our survey assessed catheter type, skin and fascial incision orientations, deep-cuff positions, exit-site directions, and omentectomy. We received responses from 156 surgeons (36.7%) and excluded 18 of those responses. Among the assessed responses, 83 surgeons (60%) indicated that they had placed at least 1 catheter in the previous 12 months. Of the 83, 13% had placed 1 catheter, 52% had placed 2 - 5, 16% had placed 6 - 9, and 18% had placed 10+. We observed significant variability in all aspects of surgical technique. The most common catheter configuration was single-cuff (59%), curled end (60%), and non swan neck (72%). The most common surgical approach was a transverse skin incision (52%), a fascial incision through the rectus (68%), a deep cuff between the peritoneum and fascia (46%), a superior-pointing exit site (37%), and a superficial cuff distant to the exit site (53%). Routine omentectomy was reported by 59% of respondents. Only 15% reported using a laparoscopic approach on first attempt. Pediatric surgeons employ a variety of surgical techniques when placing peritoneal catheters. Some of the techniques used vary from the published recommendations. Quality can potentially be improved by wider dissemination of published surgical recommendations.
    Advances in peritoneal dialysis. Conference on Peritoneal Dialysis 02/2004; 20:218-21.
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    03/2012; 32(2):204-6. DOI:10.3747/pdi.2011.00250
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    ABSTRACT: Icodextrin (Extraneal) is a high molecular weight glucose polymer developed specifically for use as an alternative osmotic agent to dextrose during the once-daily long-dwell exchange in peritoneal dialysis (PD). Isosmotic 7.5% icodextrin solution induces transcapillary ultrafiltration (UF) by a mechanism resembling 'colloid' osmosis (unlike hyper-osmolar dextrose-based solutions, which induce UF by crystalline osmosis). In addition, absorption of icodextrin from the peritoneal cavity is relatively slow compared with that of dextrose; this results not only in UF of longer duration, but also a lower carbohydrate load compared with medium (2.5%) and strong (4.25%) dextrose exchanges. In randomised clinical trials of up to 2 years in duration, administration of icodextrin for the long (8- to 16-hour) overnight exchange in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) or daytime exchange in automated peritoneal dialysis (APD) produced net UF which exceeded that with 1.5% and 2.5% dextrose solutions (thereby improving fluid balance), and was equivalent to that with 4.25% dextrose solution. Icodextrin also increased peritoneal clearances of creatinine and urea nitrogen compared with 2.5% dextrose solution. The increase in UF volume with icodextrin was enhanced in CAPD patients with high peritoneal membrane permeability (i.e. high and high-average transporters), maintained in the small number of patients followed-up for 2 years and sustained during episodes of peritonitis. Icodextrin reduced the percentage of patients with net negative UF in contrast to 1.5% and 2.5% dextrose and, in noncomparative studies, extended PD technique survival in patients who had failed dextrose-based dialysis. The use of icodextrin was also associated with some symptomatic improvements and health-related quality of life advantages, and no adverse effect on patient survival, compared with dextrose, although confirmation of these findings is ideally required in appropriately designed studies. The tolerability of icodextrin was generally similar to that of dextrose-based solutions in controlled clinical trials, although there was an approximate three-fold increase in the risk of new skin rash (5.5% vs 1.7%). However, reports of severe cutaneous hypersensitivity reactions remain rare; this possibility should not preclude the use of the polymer. CONCLUSION: 7.5% icodextrin solution offers the first feasible alternative to conventional dextrose solutions for the once-daily long-dwell exchange in PD. It is effective, generally well tolerated and appears to be most useful in situations of reduced or inadequate UF with dextrose, including in high and high-average transporters, during episodes of peritonitis and patients who have failed dextrose-based dialysis.
    Drugs 02/2003; 63(19):2079-105. · 4.13 Impact Factor

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