A review of biochemical and molecular genetic aspects of tyrosine hydroxylase deficiency including a novel mutation (291delC).
ABSTRACT An overview is given of the current knowledge on the human tyrosine hydroxylase gene and on the biochemical aspects of diagnosing defects in this gene. Diagnostic biochemical findings are described in four cases of genetically confirmed tyrosine hydroxylase deficiency. Decreased CSF levels of homovanillic acid (HVA) and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethyleneglycol (MHPG), together with normal pterin and CSF tyrosine and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) concentrations are the diagnostic hallmarks of tyrosine hydroxylase deficiency. At the metabolite level the diagnosis can only be made reliably in CSF. Strict adherence to a standardized lumbar puncture protocol and adequate reference values are essential for diagnosis of this 'new' treatable neurometabolic disorder. Measurements of HVA, vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) or catecholamines in urine are not relevant for diagnosing tyrosine hydroxylase deficiency. The diagnosis should be considered in all children with unexplained hypokinesia and other extrapyramidal symptoms. Three of our patients are homozygous for a mutation in exon 6 (698G > A) of the tyrosine hydroxylase gene and one patient was compound heterozygous for the same mutation and a novel truncating mutation in exon 3 (291delC).
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ABSTRACT: Catecholamines [dopamine, noradrenaline (norepinephrine), and adrenaline (epinephrine); CAs] are neurotransmitters in the central and peripheral nervous systems as well as hormones in the endocrine system. CAs in the brain play a central role in versatile functions as slow-acting neurotransmitters functioning in synaptic neurotransmission, modulating the effects of fast-acting neurotransmitters such as glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). In this review, I focus on recent advances in the biochemistry and molecular biology of the CA system in humans in health and disease, especially in neuropsychiatric diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD), in relation to the biosynthesis of CAs regulated by a pteridine-dependent monooxygenase, tyrosine 3-monooxygenase (tyrosine hydroxylase, TH) and its pteridine cofactor, tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4).Proceedings of the Japan Academy Ser B Physical and Biological Sciences 01/2007; 82(10):388-415. · 2.56 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive and often treatable neurometabolic disorder with variable phenotypes. More than 20 pathological mutations have been identified in patients with TH deficiency. We report the case of a 10-month-old male patient who presented with developmental delay, hypotonia and oculogyric crises to the Salmaniya Medical Complex in Manama, Bahrain. At a later stage, he developed orofacial dyskinaesia and tremors with hyper-reflexia and clonus. A magnetic resonance imaging scan of the brain showed mild atrophy with widened ventricles and genetic testing revealed a novel homozygous mutation (c.938G>T; p.Arg313Leu) in exon 9 of the TH gene. The patient showed a remarkable response to treatment using combined levodopa-carbidopa. In this case, the orofacial dyskinaesia may be a specific clinical association unique to this novel mutation, which is the first to be described in Bahrain and the Middle East.Sultan Qaboos University medical journal 08/2014; 14(3):e397-400.