A review of biochemical and molecular genetic aspects of tyrosine hydroxylase deficiency including a novel mutation (291delC).
ABSTRACT An overview is given of the current knowledge on the human tyrosine hydroxylase gene and on the biochemical aspects of diagnosing defects in this gene. Diagnostic biochemical findings are described in four cases of genetically confirmed tyrosine hydroxylase deficiency. Decreased CSF levels of homovanillic acid (HVA) and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethyleneglycol (MHPG), together with normal pterin and CSF tyrosine and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) concentrations are the diagnostic hallmarks of tyrosine hydroxylase deficiency. At the metabolite level the diagnosis can only be made reliably in CSF. Strict adherence to a standardized lumbar puncture protocol and adequate reference values are essential for diagnosis of this 'new' treatable neurometabolic disorder. Measurements of HVA, vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) or catecholamines in urine are not relevant for diagnosing tyrosine hydroxylase deficiency. The diagnosis should be considered in all children with unexplained hypokinesia and other extrapyramidal symptoms. Three of our patients are homozygous for a mutation in exon 6 (698G > A) of the tyrosine hydroxylase gene and one patient was compound heterozygous for the same mutation and a novel truncating mutation in exon 3 (291delC).
- SourceAvailable from: Rui A CarvalhoNeuroscience - Dealing With Frontiers, 03/2012; , ISBN: 978-953-51-0207-6
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive disorder mapped to chromosome 11p15.5. Its clinical expression varies with presentations as dopa-responsive dystonia (recessive Segawa's disease), dopa-responsive infantile parkinsonism, dopa-responsive spastic paraplegia, progressive infantile encephalopathy or dopa-non-responsive dystonia. We describe a 7-year-old boy with progressive infantile encephalopathy and non-responsiveness to dopamine. The patient demonstrated generalized hypotonia, pyramidal tract dysfunction and temperature instability after the second month of life. Dystonia, tremor and oculogyric crises complicated the clinical picture during the following months. Neurotransmitter analysis in CSF disclosed almost undetectable levels of HVA and MHPG, whereas serum prolactin was profoundly increased. Subsequent molecular analysis revealed homozygosity for a missense mutation (c.707T>C) in the TH gene. l-Dopa therapy in both high and low doses resulted in massive hyperkinesias, while substitution with selegiline exerted only a mild beneficial effect. Today, at the age of 7 years, the patient demonstrates severe developmental retardation with marked trunkal hypotonia, hypokinesia and occasionally dystonic and/or hyperkinetic crises. He is the third Greek patient with TH deficiency to be reported. Since all three patients carry the same pathogenetic mutation, a founder effect is suspected.Molecular Genetics and Metabolism 05/2009; 97(1):18-20. DOI:10.1016/j.ymgme.2009.02.001 · 2.83 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of dopamine, epinephrine and norepinephrine. The primary diagnosis of TH deficiency is based on the measurement of neurotransmitter metabolites and pterins in the cerebrospinal fluid, and the final diagnosis is made by detection of mutations in the TH gene. The clinical expression varies with presentations as infantile parkinsonism, L-dopa responsive spastic paraplegia, or as a progressive severe encephalopathy. Treatment with L-dopa is not always sufficient and a number of patients with poor or no response to L-dopa have recently been described. TH is not expressed in amniotic fluid cells or in chorionic villus, so prenatal diagnosis by measurement of the enzyme activity is not possible. The only possibility of a prenatal diagnosis is by analyzing the TH gene for mutations. Here we describe a case of severe TH deficiency, identification of two novel mutations (p.R328W and p.T399M) and most importantly, the first prenatal diagnosis of this disease. The availability of prenatal diagnosis offers the parents new options. They may use the result as preparation for the birth of a child with TH deficiency, or they may decide termination of an affected pregnancy.Prenatal Diagnosis 08/2005; 25(8):671-5. DOI:10.1002/pd.1193 · 2.51 Impact Factor