We investigated cardiac sympathetic innervation by metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) imaging in a patient with tonic pupils, loss of tendon reflexes, and segmental anhidrosis (Ross syndrome). Despite normal cardiovascular reflex tests, we observed a reduced global myocardial MIBG uptake as well as a regional uptake defect over the posterolateral cardiac territory indicating left ventricular peripheral sympathetic denervation. MIBG imaging seems to be a useful noninvasive diagnostic method for detection of early--possibly subclinical--cardiac autonomic impairment in Ross syndrome and provides further evidence of injury to postganglionic autonomic neurons as the underlying pathological mechanism of the disease.
"Sensory impairment was not mentioned by Ross (1958) in his first description, and this aspect has been disregarded or not evaluated by successive authors (Weller et al., 1992; Pereon et al., 1993; Reinauer et al., 1993; Diaz-Barreiros et al., 1995; Wolfe et al., 1995; Bergmann et al., 1998; Druschky et al., 1999; Shin et al., 2000; Sommer et al., 2002; Chakravarty et al., 2003; Beier et al., 2004; Serra Mitjans et al., 2004). Although only two of our patients complained of thermal and pain perception disturbances, QST allowed detection of a subclinical sensory impairment in all of them. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ross syndrome is described as a rare disorder of sweating associated with areflexia and tonic pupil. Since Ross's first description in 1958, approximately 40 cases have been described. We assessed the involvement of cutaneous innervation in 12 subjects with Ross syndrome using quantitative sensory testing, sweating assessment and immunohistochemical study of anhidrotic and hyperhidrotic skin. This evaluation was repeated over time in 4 out of 12 subjects. In addition, we enrolled four subjects with Holmes-Adie syndrome (areflexia and tonic pupil) to investigate similarities between the two conditions. We found in Ross patients a complex and progressive involvement of cutaneous sensory and autonomic innervation underlying the impairment of heat production and heat dissipation through both loss of sweating and loss of cutaneous blood flow regulation. In Holmes-Adie subjects we found a mild impairment of sweating without thermoregulatory problems. The persistence of a sudomotor vasoactive intestinal peptide-immunoreactive (VIP-ir) innervation, although deranged and poor, definitely differentiated Holmes-Adie from Ross patients. Ross syndrome is a progressive and complex disorder of thermoregulation difficult to differentiate from the probably pathogenetically related Holmes-Adie syndrome. Sweating assessment and skin biopsy are suitable tools to define a boundary between them. Owing to the large number of Ross patients observed in only 5 years, and to the long and complex medical history of most of them, doubts arise on the effective rarity of this condition, and we warn family doctors and other specialists, besides neurologists, to become aware of this complex disorder.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To define the involvement of peripheral nerve fibers in Ross syndrome.
Mechanical pain perception, tactile and thermal thresholds on hand, foot dorsum, thigh, median nerve orthodromic sensory conduction velocity (SCV) and motor conduction velocity (MCV), sural nerve antidromic SCV, peroneal nerve MCV, H-reflex, F-wave, median, tibial nerve somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs), perioral, hand CO(2) laser late (LEPs) and ultralate evoked potentials, sympathetic skin response (SSRs), cardiovascular, Minor sweat, silastic imprint, histamine, photopletysmographic and pupil pilocarpine tests, cutaneous innervation immunohistochemical techniques were studied in 3 patients with Ross syndrome.
Quantitative sensory testing showed altered results in patients 1 and 2, and patient 3 had a slight impairment of mechanical pain perception. Nerve conduction, except for a median nerve distal reduction of sensory conduction in patient 1, F-wave and SSEP findings were normal; H-reflex was absent at rest in all patients. Hand LEPs were absent in patient 2, ultralate potentials were absent in patients 1 and 2. Skin biopsy showed a disease duration related reduction of unmyelinated and myelinated sensory fibers and a lack of unmyelinated autonomic fibers in all patients.
Our data suggest that Ross syndrome is a degenerative disorder involving progressive sudomotor fibers, and then epidermal sensory unmyelinated and myelinated fibers.
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