The literature on myopigenesis suggests an active emmetropization mechanism regulated by optical defocus. The strongest evidence comes from compensatory ocular growth in response to lens-induced defocus in different species of animals. Based on these results, it has been suggested that, however useful, spectacle intervention for the optical correction of human myopia would lead to its exacerbation. The present study seeks to evaluate the progression of juvenile-onset myopia in children differentiated by their lens wear patterns. Data from 43 myopes from our longitudinal study of refraction were evaluated, with myopia defined as a spherical equivalent of at least -0.50 D. Refractions were obtained in the laboratory by noncycloplegic retinoscopy performed by one experienced optometrist at regular intervals. Information regarding the subjects' prescription lens-wearing history was obtained from the subjects and their eye care providers. Based on their wearing patterns, subjects were divided into four categories: (1) full-time wearers; (2) myopes who switched from distance to full-time wear; (3) distance wearers; and (4) nonwearers. Exponential functions were fit to the individual refraction data. The age of onset of myopia, the mean myopia at onset of spectacle wear, and the refractive shift over a period of at least 3 years were derived from these fits. Results show that the 3-year refractive shifts are not significantly different among the four groups. A comparison of the extreme conditions, i.e., full-time vs. nonwear categories, also revealed no significant difference when the data were corrected for age effects despite the fact that the nonwearers exhibited an age-adjusted 3-year progression approximately one-half that of the full-time wearers. In summary, the present study failed to demonstrate any overall effects of spectacle intervention on the progression of human myopia. Further investigation using a larger sample is warranted.
"The degree of under-correction in the participants was not recorded in this trial, and could therefore theoretically be a confounding factor. One study found that under-correction enhances myopia progression , while another found no effect . It is not known whether the axial growth rate is affected by under-correction. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The adenosine antagonist 7-methylxanthine (7-mx) works against myopia in animal models. In a clinical trial, 68 myopic children (mean age 11.3 years) received either placebo or 7-mx tablets for 12 months. All participants subsequently received 7-mx for another 12 months, after which treatment was stopped. Axial length was measured with Zeiss IOL-Master and cycloplegic refraction with Nikon Retinomax at -6, 0, 12, 24, and 36 months. Axial growth was reduced among children treated with 7-mx for 24 months compared with those only treated for the last 12 months. Myopia progression and axial eye growth slowed down in periods with 7-mx treatment, but when the treatment was stopped, both myopia progression and axial eye growth continued with invariable speed. The results indicate that 7-mx reduces eye elongation and myopia progression in childhood myopia. The treatment is safe and without side effects and may be continued until 18-20 years of age when myopia progression normally stops.
Journal of Ocular Biology Diseases and Informatics 12/2008; 1(2-4):85-93. DOI:10.1007/s12177-008-9013-3
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many children with accommodative esotropia are able to successfully discontinue spectacle wear, while others require spectacle correction into adulthood. Parents often ask about the likelihood of glasses being required on a long-term basis and whether use of spectacles will cause dependency. Most infants are hyperopic and gradually become emmetropic. The extent to which accommodation and spectacle use affect this process is still debated. However, certain characteristics, such as degree of hyperopia, can help predict long-term spectacle requirement.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: While prolonged nearwork is considered to be an environmental risk factor associated with myopia development, an underlying genetic susceptibility to nearwork-induced accommodative adaptation may be one possible mechanism for human myopia development. As the control of accommodation by the autonomic system may be one such genetically predetermined system, this research sought to investigate whether an anomaly of the autonomic control of accommodation may be responsible for myopia development and progression. The emphasis of this work was determining the effect of altering the sympathetic input to the ciliary muscle on accommodation responses such as tonic accommodation and nearwork-induced accommodative adaptation in myopes and non-myopes. The first study of the thesis was based on observations of Gilmartin and Winfield (1995) which suggested that a deficit in the sympathetic inputs to the ciliary muscle may be associated with a propensity for myopia development. The effect of ß-antagonism with timolol application on accommodation characteristics was studied in different refractive error groups. Our results support the previous findings that a deficit of sympathetic facility during nearwork was not a feature of late-onset myopia. However it was found that classifying myopes according to stability of their myopia and their ethnic background was important and this allowed differentiation between accommodation responses and characteristics of the ciliary muscle autonomic inputs, with the greatest difference observed between Caucasian stable myopes and Asian progressing myopes. Progressing myopes, particularly those with an Asian background, demonstrated enhanced susceptibility to nearwork-induced accommodative adaptation and this was suggested to result from a possible parasympathetic dominance and a relative sympathetic deficit to the ciliary muscle. In contrast, stable myopes, particularly those with an Asian background, demonstrated minimal accommodation changes following nearwork (counter-adaptation in some cases), and increased accommodative adaptation with ß-antagonism, suggesting sympathetic dominance as the possible autonomic accommodation control profile. As ethnic background was found to be an important factor, a similar study was also conducted in a group of Hong Kong Chinese children to investigate if enhanced susceptibility to nearwork-induced changes in accommodation may explain in part the high prevalence of myopia in Hong Kong. Despite some minor differences in methodology between the two studies, the Hong Kong stable myopic children demonstrated counter-adaptive changes and greater accommodative adaptation with timolol, findings that were consistent with those of the adult Asian stable myopes. Both Asian progressing myopic children and adults also showed greater accommodative adaptation than the stable myopes and similar response profiles following ß-adrenergic antagonism. Thus a combination of genetically predetermined accommodation profiles that confer high susceptibility and extreme environmental pressures is a likely explanation for the increase in myopia over the past decades in Asian countries. The hypothesis that a sympathetic deficit is linked to myopia was also investigated by comparing the effect of â-stimulation with salbutamol, a ß-agonist, on accommodation with that of ß-antagonism using timolol. It was hypothesized that salbutamol would have the opposite effect of timolol, and that it would have a greater effect on subjects who demonstrated greater accommodative adaptation effects, i.e. the progressing myopes, compared to those who showed minimal changes in accommodation following nearwork. Consistent with the hypothesis, the effect of sympathetic stimulation with salbutamol application was only evident in the progressing myopes whom we hypothesized may have a parasympathetic dominance and a relative sympathetic deficit type of autonomic imbalance while it did not further enhance the rapid accommodative regression profile demonstrated by the stable myopes. Characteristics of the convergence system and the interaction between accommodation and convergence were also investigated in the Hong Kong children. No significant differences in response AC/A ratios between the emmetropic, stable and progressing myopic children were found and it was concluded that elevated AC/A ratios were not associated with higher myopic progression rate in this sample of Hong Kong children. However, ß-adrenergic antagonism with timolol application produced a greater effect on accommodative convergence (AC) in stable myopic children who presumably have a more adequate, robust sympathetic input to the ciliary muscle, but had little effect on AC of progressing myopic children. This finding again points to the possibility that the autonomic control of the accommodation and convergence systems may be different between stable and progressing myopia. The primary contribution of this study to the understanding of myopia development is that differences in the autonomic control of the ciliary muscle may be responsible for producing anomalous accommodation responses. This could have significant impact on retinal image quality and thus results in myopia development. This knowledge may be incorporated into computer models of accommodation and myopia development and provides scope for further investigation of the therapeutic benefits of autonomic agents for myopia control.
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