Structure of the PIN/LC8 dimer with a bound peptide.
ABSTRACT The structure of the protein known both as neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitory protein, PIN (protein inhibitor of nNOS), and also as the 8 kDa dynein light chain (LC8) has been solved by X-ray diffraction. Two PIN/LC8 monomers related by a two-fold axis form a rectangular dimer. Two pairs of alpha-helices cover opposite faces, and each pair of helices packs against a beta-sheet with five antiparallel beta-strands. Each five-stranded beta-sheet contains four strands from one monomer and a fifth strand from the other monomer. A 13-residue peptide from nNOS is bound to the dimer in a deep hydrophobic groove as a sixth antiparallel beta-strand. The structure provides key insights into dimerization of and peptide binding by the multifunctional PIN/LC8 protein.
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ABSTRACT: The tegumental allergen-like (TAL) proteins from Schistosoma mansoni are part of a family of calcium binding proteins found only in parasitic flatworms. These proteins have attracted interest as potential drug or vaccine targets, yet comparatively little is known about their biochemistry. Here, we compared the biochemical properties of three members of this family: SmTAL1 (Sm22.6), SmTAL2 (Sm21.7) and SmTAL3 (Sm20.8). Molecular modelling suggested that, despite similarities in domain organisation, there are differences in the three proteins’ structures. SmTAL1 was predicted to have two functional calcium binding sites and SmTAL2 was predicted to have one. Despite the presence of two EF-hand-like structures in SmTAL3, neither was predicted to be functional. These predictions were confirmed by native gel electrophoresis, intrinsic fluorescence and differential scanning fluorimetry: both SmTAL1 and SmTAL2 are able to bind calcium ions reversibly, but SmTAL3 is not. SmTAL1 is also able to interact with manganese, strontium, iron(II) and nickel ions. SmTAL2 has a different ion binding profile interacting with cadmium, manganese, magnesium, strontium and barium ions in addition to calcium. All three proteins form dimers and, in contrast to some Fasciola hepatica proteins from the same family; dimerization is not affected by calcium ions. SmTAL1 interacts with the anti-schistosomal drug praziquantel and the calmodulin antagonists trifluoperazine, chlorpromazine and W7. SmTAL2 interacts only with W7. SmTAL3 interacts with the aforementioned calmodulin antagonists and thiamylal, but not praziquantel. Overall, these data suggest that the proteins have different biochemical properties and thus, most likely, different in vivo functions.Biochimie 11/2014; 108. DOI:10.1016/j.biochi.2014.10.015 · 3.12 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: LC8 dynein light chains (DYNLL) are conserved homodimeric eukaryotic hub proteins that participate in diverse cellular processes. Among the binding partners of DYNLL2, myosin 5a (myo5a) is a motor protein involved in cargo transport. Here we provide a profound characterization of the DYNLL2 binding motif of myo5a in free and DYNLL2 bound form by using NMR spectroscopy, X-ray crystallography and molecular dynamics simulations. In the free form the DYNLL2 binding region, located in an intrinsically disordered domain of the myo5a tail, has a nascent helical character. The motif becomes structured and folds into a β-strand upon binding to DYNLL2. Despite differences of the myo5a sequence from the consensus binding motif, one peptide is accommodated in each of the parallel DYNLL2 binding grooves, as for all other known partners. Interestingly, while the core motif shows similar interaction pattern in the binding groove as seen in other complexes, the flanking residues make several additional contacts, thereby lengthening the binding motif. The N-terminal extension folds back and partially blocks the free edge of the β-sheet formed by the binding motif itself. The C-terminal extension contacts the dimer interface and interacts with symmetry related residues of the second myo5a peptide. The involvement of flanking residues of the core binding site of myo5a could modify the quaternary structure of the full-length myo5a and affect its biological functions. Our results deepen the knowledge of the diverse partner recognition of DYNLL proteins and provide an example of a Janus-faced linear motif.Biochemistry 10/2014; DOI:10.1021/bi500574z · 3.19 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The Schistosoma mansoni transcriptome revealed new members of the dynein light chain family (DLC/LC8). The antigenicity and immunogenicity of these proteins, and their potential as vaccine candidates were investigated. Two DLC genes (DLC12_JI392413.1 and DLC13_JI387686.1) were cloned and the recombinant proteins produced in E. coli. The immunization of mice with the rDLCs, using alhydrogel as adjuvant, resulted in high titers of antibodies, indicated that these proteins are highly immunogenic. The anti-DLCs antibodies presented cross reactivity with both recombinant antigens and also recognized proteins from S. mansoni adult worm extracts. The DLC12 and DLC13 immunized animals were challenged by infection with cercariae and a protective profile was observed in three different assays, with a significant decreased in worm burden, of 43% and 51% respectively, when compared to the non-vaccinated group. The granulomas formation due to egg retention in the hepatic tissues was evaluated 45 days after infection. Smaller granulomas were observed in the liver of DLC immunized animals, up to 70% reduction in comparison to the granulomas size in the non-vaccinated animals. Fifty five days after infection, the average size of the hepatic granulomas was still 25 to 35% smaller in the DLCs vaccinated groups. The interference of DLC immunization on the hepatic granuloma formation may reflect the lower worm burden and consequent decrease on the number of eggs retained in the liver, resulting in lower pro-inflammatory level in the tissue. The protective effect of DLCs immunization, decreasing the worm burden and delaying the rate of granuloma formation, suggests that these antigens should be further studied as potential vaccine candidates.Acta Tropica 09/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.actatropica.2014.09.006 · 2.52 Impact Factor