Kojima M, Nakamura S, Itoh H, et al. Mast cell sarcoma with tissue eosinophilia arising in the ascending colon

Department of Pathology, Dokkyo University School of Medicine, Mibu, Tochigi, Japan.
Modern Pathology (Impact Factor: 6.19). 08/1999; 12(7):739-43.
Source: PubMed


Mast cell sarcoma is a rare disease. We report an unusual case of this neoplasm arising in the ascending colon of a 32-year-old Japanese woman who presented with abdominal pain. An ulcerating mass in the colon was resected, along with enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes. Two years after surgery, the neoplasm recurred as left cervical lymphadenopathy and an intra-abdominal mass. Despite predonine and radiation therapy, the disease progressed, and the patient died. The tumor cells had abundant fine granular or clear cytoplasm, and oval, lobulated, or indented nuclei. Numerous mature eosinophils were intermingled with the tumor cells. Immunohistologic studies on paraffin sections demonstrated that the majority of the tumor cells were strongly positive for CD45RB, CD68, and mast cell tryptase. They were unreactive, however, with a broad spectrum of antibodies against myelomonocytic and lymphocytic antigens. The mast cell nature of this rare type of tumor can be best identifiable by immunostains for mast cell tryptase.

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    ABSTRACT: Patients with systemic mast cell (MC) disease, but not those with cutaneous mastocytosis, are at a high risk (10-30%) to develop life-threatening myelogenous malignancies. In a significant proportion of cases, myeloid leukemias occur. Using conventional criteria, such leukemias resemble acute myeloid leukemia (AML), chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), or myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML). Mast cell leukemia (MCL) may also occur. Myeloid leukemias (AML, CML, CMML) can develop in indolent or aggressive mastocytosis (skin lesions present or absent) with a variable prephase of MC disease. By contrast, MCL (typically without skin lesions) often develops on a "de novo" basis, and, if at all recognized, a prephase resembling (malignant) mastocytosis, is short. MCL differs from myeloid leukemias (AML, CML, CMML) by morphologic and phenotypic cellular characteristics. In fact, MCL are strongly tryptase-positive, c-kit-positive, myeloperoxidase (MPO) -negative neoplasms with variable metachromasia and chloroacetate esterase expression, whereas an MPO-positive, tryptase-negative phenotype supports the diagnosis of a myeloid non-MC lineage disease. Thus, MCL, but also myeloid non-MC lineage leukemias can develop in patients with (systemic) mastocytosis. Little is known, however, about the pathophysiologic basis of co-evolution. In the present article, the concomitant occurrence of mastocytosis and leukemia is discussed in the light of the literature and of concepts proposed to explain the biologic basis of this phenomenon.
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    ABSTRACT: The term ‘mastocytosis’ denotes a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by abnormal growth and accumulation of mast cells (MC) in one or more organ systems. Over the last 20 years, there has been an evolution in accepted classification systems for this disease. In light of such developments and novel useful markers, it seems appropriate now to re-evaluate and update the classification of mastocytosis. Here, we propose criteria to delineate categories of mastocytosis together with an updated consensus classification system. In this proposal, the diagnosis cutaneous mastocytosis (CM) is based on typical clinical and histological skin lesions and absence of definitive signs (criteria) of systemic involvement. Most patients with CM are children and present with maculopapular cutaneous mastocytosis (=urticaria pigmentosa, UP). Other less frequent forms of CM are diffuse cutaneous mastocytosis (DCM) and mastocytoma of skin. Systemic mastocytosis (SM) is commonly seen in adults and defined by multifocal histological lesions in the bone marrow (affected almost invariably) or other extracutaneous organs (major criteria) together with cytological and biochemical signs (minor criteria) of systemic disease (SM-criteria). SM is further divided into the following categories: indolent systemic mastocytosis (ISM), SM with an a̱ssociated clonal ẖematologic ṉon-m̱ast cell lineage ḏisease (AHNMD), aggressive systemic mastocytosis (ASM), and mast cell leukemia (MCL). Patients with ISM usually have maculopapular skin lesions and a good prognosis. In the group with associated hematologic disease, the AHNMD should be classified according to FAB/WHO criteria. ASM is characterized by impaired organ-function due to infiltration of the bone marrow, liver, spleen, GI-tract, or skeletal system, by pathologic MC. MCL is a ‘high-grade’ leukemic disease defined by increased numbers of MC in bone marrow smears (≥20%) and peripheral blood, absence of skin lesions, multiorgan failure, and a short survival. In typical cases, circulating MC amount to ≥10% of leukocytes (classical form of MCL). Mast cell sarcoma is a unifocal tumor that consists of atypical MC and shows a destructive growth without (primary) systemic involvement. This high-grade malignant MC disease has to be distinguished from a localized benign mastocytoma in either extracutaneous organs (=extracutaneous mastocytoma) or skin. Depending on the clinical course of mastocytosis and development of an AHNMD, patients can shift from one category of MC disease into another. In all categories, mediator-related symptoms may occur and may represent a serious clinical problem. All categories of mastocytosis should be distinctively separated from reactive MC hyperplasia, MC activation syndromes, and a more or less pronounced increase in MC in myelogenous malignancies other than mastocytosis. Criteria proposed in this article should be helpful in this regard.
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