Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA
Vol. 96, pp. 9212–9217, August 1999
Distinctive gene expression patterns in human mammary
epithelial cells and breast cancers
CHARLES M. PEROU*, STEFANIE S. JEFFREY†, MATT VAN DE RIJN‡, CHRISTIAN A. REES*, MICHAEL B. EISEN*,
DOUGLAS T. ROSS§, ALEXANDER PERGAMENSCHIKOV*, CHERYL F. WILLIAMS*, SHIRLEY X. ZHU‡,
JEFFREY C. F. LEE¶, DEVAL LASHKARI?, DARI SHALON¶, PATRICK O. BROWN§**††, AND DAVID BOTSTEIN*††
Departments of *Genetics,†Surgery,‡Pathology, and§Biochemistry and **Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford,
CA 94305;¶Incyte Pharmaceuticals Inc., Fremont, CA 94555; and?Genometrix, The Woodlands, TX 77381
Contributed by David Botstein, June 11, 1999
rithm were used to identify patterns of gene expression in
human mammary epithelial cells growing in culture and in
primary human breast tumors. Clusters of coexpressed genes
identified through manipulations of mammary epithelial cells
in vitro also showed consistent patterns of variation in ex-
pression among breast tumor samples. By using immunohis-
tochemistry with antibodies against proteins encoded by a
particular gene in a cluster, the identity of the cell type within
the tumor specimen that contributed the observed gene ex-
pression pattern could be determined. Clusters of genes with
coherent expression patterns in cultured cells and in the
breast tumors samples could be related to specific features of
biological variation among the samples. Two such clusters
were found to have patterns that correlated with variation in
cell proliferation rates and with activation of the IFN-
regulated signal transduction pathway, respectively. Clusters
of genes expressed by stromal cells and lymphocytes in the
breast tumors also were identified in this analysis. These
results support the feasibility and usefulness of this system-
atic approach to studying variation in gene expression pat-
cDNA microarrays and a clustering algo-
Many of the new genomic analysis tools offer great promise for
classifications of tumors based on variations in gene expres-
sion. However, the study of gene expression in primary human
breast tumors, as in most solid tumors, is complicated for two
major reasons. First, breast tumors consist of many different
cell types, including not just the carcinoma cells, but also
additional epithelial cell types, stromal cells, adipose cells,
endothelial cells, and infiltrating lymphocytes (1). Second,
breast carcinoma (BC) cells themselves are morphologically
and genetically diverse (2). These features have made the study
and classification of human breast tumors difficult.
Recently, cDNA microarrays have been used to identify
physiologically relevant gene expression patterns in simple
biological samples like yeast cultures (3) and cultures of human
fibroblasts (4). cDNA microarrays have been extensively de-
scribed and simply consist of thousands of different cDNA
clones spotted onto known locations on glass microscope
slides (5–11); these slides?microarrays then are hybridized
with differentially labeled cDNA populations made from the
mRNAs of two different samples. The primary data obtained
are ratios of fluorescence intensity (red?green, R?G) repre-
senting the ratio of concentrations of mRNA molecules that
hybridized to each of the cDNAs represented on the array.
As a first step in using cDNA microarrays to identify
physiologically relevant gene expression patterns in human
breast tumors, in vitro experiments were performed by using
specific hormones added to breast epithelial cell cultures. By
subjecting cells to different conditions, it was possible to
identify ‘‘clusters’’ of genes that showed similar patterns of
expression by using the algorithms and software described by
Eisen et al. (12). In a first attempt to study tumors, mRNA
samples from 13 grossly dissected human breast tumors were
compared to the mRNA from cultured human mammary
epithelial cells (HMEC). Some of the clusters of genes with
distinctive expression patterns identified in vitro also varied
substantially in their expression in the breast tumor samples.
For some of the clusters of coexpressed genes, expression in
the tumor samples appeared to be attributable to other,
noncarcinoma cell types, including stromal cells and B lym-
MATERIALS AND METHODS
cDNA Clones, Microarrays, and Data Analysis. The 5,531
human cDNA microarrays used in this study were made in
collaboration with Synteni, Inc. (now Incyte Pharmaceutical,
Inc.). These microarrays were hybridized as described in ref. 4
and scanned and quantitated as described in ref. 3 by using the
average of the lower 10% of the pixel intensities for the local
background calculation. The cDNA clones used to make these
microarrays represent a set of approximately 5,000 genes,
which is part of a larger 15,000 gene?clone collection that has
been described elsewhere (refs. 4 and 13 and see http:??
www.nhgri.nih.gov?DIR?LCG?15K?HTML?). Sequence con-
firmation of this clone set is not completed; but the identities
of approximately 80% of the clones that were successfully
resequenced were confirmed. Many clones are identified here
by either a name or number, which is preceded by the
designation SID (which stands for the Stanford identification
number); these are clones for which satisfactory confirmation
is still lacking. All clones?genes named in the text or in the
figures (including I.M.A.G.E. expressed sequence tag num-
bers) were confirmed by resequencing. Any questions con-
cerning cDNA clones?genes presented here should be directed
to C.M.P. at email@example.com.
Gene-clustering analysis was performed as described in ref.
12. For the cluster diagrams presented in Figs. 1 and 2, the
input parameters were to select the subset of genes that had a
R?G ratio of 3-fold or higher on at least two or more arrays
(Fig. 1) or a R?G ratio of 3-fold or higher on at least three or
more arrays (Fig. 2). The primary data tables and other
materials are available at http:??genome-www.stanford.edu?
The publication costs of this article were defrayed in part by page charge
payment. This article must therefore be hereby marked ‘‘advertisement’’ in
accordance with 18 U.S.C. §1734 solely to indicate this fact.
PNAS is available online at www.pnas.org.
Abbreviations: HMEC, human mammary epithelial cells; EGF, epi-
dermal growth factor; TGF-?1, transforming growth factor ?-1; BC,
breast carcinoma; R?G, red?green.
††To whom reprint requests should be addressed. E-mail: pbrown@
cmgm.stanford.edu or firstname.lastname@example.org.
Cell Culture. HMEC were obtained from Clonetics (San
Diego)?BioWhittaker and grown in the recommended com-
plete mammary epithelial growth medium. A single HMEC
isolate was used for all studies. The control HMEC reference
samples used were passage 9–14 cultures that were harvested
at 60–80% confluence and had their medium changed 2 days
before the mRNA harvest. To determine how much variation
in gene expression there was in these independently prepared
HMEC samples, two different passage HMEC control samples
were compared on a 1,952-gene microarray (data not shown).
Of the 1,952 genes analyzed, four genes showed a R?G ratio
between 2.3 and 2.0, 14 genes showed a R?G ratio between 0.5
and 0.37, whereas all other genes tested that gave an appre-
ciable signal fell into the R?G ratio range of 2 to 0.5 (2-fold
difference or less).
The senescent HMEC cells were a passage-19 culture that
showed very little cell division over a 2-week period, with
senescence occurring at the M1 stage (14); these senescent
cells also contained numerous large vacuoles, which were
rarely seen in early to mid passage cells and have been shown
previously to occur in senescent fibroblasts, endothelial cells,
and HMEC cultures (15–17). For the confluent HMEC sam-
ple, the cells were allowed to reach 100% confluence and refed
with fresh medium, and mRNA was harvested 2 days later. The
epidermal growth factor (EGF) withdrawal HMEC samples
were prepared as described in ref. 18. The Matrigel (Becton
Dickinson) samples were prepared by applying a thick coating
of Matrigel to tissue culture plates according to the manufac-
turer’s instructions, followed by the seeding of the plates with
2 ? 106HMEC; mRNA then was harvested 24 hr after plating.
Individual hormones were added to 60–70% confluent
HMEC cultures. In each case, the concentrations of hormone
used were based on previously published studies (19, 20), with
the medium removed and replaced with complete mammary
epithelial growth medium (MEGM) that contained either 7
ng?ml transforming growth factor ?-1 (TGF-?1) (R & D
Systems), 500 units?ml universal type I IFN-? (RDI, Flanders,
NJ), or 33 ng?ml IFN-? (RDI) followed by a 24-hr incubation
at 37°C. MCF7 cells (J. Weinstein, National Cancer Institute)
and Hs578T cells (American Type Culture Collection) were
grown in RPMI ? 10% FCS ? penicillin?streptomycin to
70–80% confluence. HB2 cells (21) were obtained from H. S.
Wiley (University of Utah) and grown in complete MEGM
mRNA Isolation from Cells and Breast Tumors. Cultured
cells were harvested by scrapping and mRNA was prepared by
using an Invitrogen FastTrack 2.0 mRNA Isolation Kit and
protocol. All of the breast tumor samples used in this study
were pieces of the primary tumor except for BC5-LN5, which
was a BC-filled lymph node, and BC1257-M, which was a BC
metastasis to an ovary. After surgical resection, the breast
tumors were dissected and a piece(s) was quickly frozen in
liquid nitrogen and stored at ?80°C. A frozen tumor specimen
then was cut into small pieces and immediately placed into 12
ml of TRIzol Reagent (GIBCO?BRL). The tumor sample in
TRIzol was homogenized by using a PowerGen 125 Tissue
Homogenizer (Fisher Scientific), and total RNA was isolated
Ratios of gene expression relative to HMEC control samples grown under standard conditions are shown. Green squares represent lower than
control levels of gene expression in the experimental samples (ratios less than 1); black squares represent genes equally expressed (ratios near 1);
red squares represent higher than control levels of gene expression (ratios greater than 1); gray squares indicate insufficient or missing data. The
color saturation reflects the magnitude of the log?ratio [see scale at top right and Fig. 5 (see Supplemental data at www.pnas.org) for the full cluster
diagram with all gene names]. (B) Expanded view of the subset of genes whose expression was decreased in association with reduced HMEC
proliferation. (C) Expanded view of the IFN-regulated gene cluster. In many instances, multiple independent clones?cDNA representing the same
gene were spotted on different locations on these microarrays, and in most cases, these copies usually clustered together, either very near each other
or immediately adjacent to each other.
(A) Cluster diagram of HMEC in vitro experiments. Each column represents a single experiment, and each row represents a single gene.
Genetics: Perou et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96 (1999)9213
by using the TRIzol reagent protocol. Tumor mRNA was
isolated by using the above-mentioned Invitrogen kit and
protocol. The normal breast samples used here were obtained
from CLONTECH and were pools of six (NorBst1) or two
(NorBst2) whole normal breasts.
Histology and Immunohistochemistry. Immunohistochem-
istry was performed on paraffin-embedded sections from all
tumors in this study by using either a STAT1 mAb (Santa Cruz
Biotechnology) or a Ki-67 antibody (Immunotech, Westbrook,
ME) following the protocol described in ref. 22. Antibody
reactivity was detected by using diaminobenzidine, and each
section was counterstained with hematoxylin to visualize tu-
To begin to define patterns of gene expression relevant to
mammary epithelial cell biology, a HMEC line growing in vitro
was subjected to a set of experimental perturbations. These
included (i) addition of TGF-?1 for 24 hr, (ii) withdrawal of
EGF for 2 days, (iii) withdrawal of EGF for 2 days followed by
the addition of EGF for 90 min, (iv) addition of IFN-? for 24
hr, (v) addition of IFN-? for 24 hr, (vi) response to 100%
confluence, (vii) response to senescence, and (viii) growth on
Matrigel for 24 hr. The mRNAs from these experimental
cultures each were labeled with the Cy5?red fluorescent
nucleotide. All but one of the experiments presented in this
paper (i.e., the EGF addition experiment that used the –EGF
sample as the Cy3-labeled sample) used the same green
reference sample, which was a Cy3-labeled cDNA sample
prepared from mRNA taken from 60–80% confluent, passage
9–14, normally growing HMEC cultures.
The data from this study were analyzed and displayed as
described (12). Briefly, a hierarchical clustering algorithm
array (representing specific genes) are grouped together based
on similarities in their patterns of gene expression. The same
algorithm is applied to cluster the experimental samples (i.e.,
cell lines and tumors) according to the similarities in their
overall patterns of gene expression. The data tables, thus
ordered, are presented graphically as colored images. Along
the vertical axis, the genes analyzed are arranged as ordered by
the horizontal axis, experimental samples are similarly ar-
ranged such that those with the most similar patterns of
expression across all genes are placed adjacent to each other.
The color of each cell?square in this tabular image represents
the measured expression ratio of each gene in question. The
color saturation is also directly proportional to the magnitude
of the measured gene expression ratio with the brightest red
squares having the highest R?G ratio (i.e., ?8-fold difference),
the brightest green squares having the lowest R?G ratio, black
squares indicating a ratio of approximately 1, and gray squares
indicating insufficient data quality.
Fig. 1A shows the single cluster diagram produced by the set
of HMEC in vitro experiments (see also Fig. 5, which is published
as supplemental data to this article on the PNAS web site,
www.pnas.org). Six of the eight experimental treatments tested
here caused a significant reduction in the proliferation rate of
these cultures, which is reflected by the variation in expression of
a set of genes highlighted in the uppermost portion of Fig. 1A.
through the cell cycle and included the human homologue of the
yeast CDC47 gene (MCM2), MCM3, MCM6, cyclin B1, and the
proliferation-associated antigen Ki-67 (Fig. 1B). The repression
of cell-cycle transit and DNA replication is consistent with the
inhibition of proliferation that is known to occur in HMEC upon
the addition of TGF-?1 and IFN-? and the withdrawal of EGF
of genes was reduced by a diverse set of growth inhibitory
pathways and suggests that this pattern may be linked to cellular
Two important processes of many primary human epithelial
cells in culture are a reduction in cell proliferation caused by
contact inhibition or replicative senescence (25, 26). The
cluster of genes that showed reduced expression after treat-
ment with TGF-?1, IFN-?, or IFN-?, or after withdrawal of
EGF, showed a similar reduction in transcript levels at con-
fluence and senescence (Fig. 1B).
A striking feature of the gene expression patterns seen in the
confluent and senescent samples is apparent at the bottom of
Fig. 1A. Under both of these conditions numerous IFN-
regulated genes, including (2?-5?) oligoadenylate synthetase E,
IFN-induced 17KD protein, and STAT1 were induced (Fig.
1C) (27–29). The induction of these IFN-regulated genes is
known to occur via the JAK?STAT pathway, which when
activated, results in the phosphorylation of some of the STAT
family member proteins (30); the phosphorylated STAT pro-
tein(s) then translocates into the nucleus where it directly
activates the transcription of target genes, including the
STAT1 gene itself (29). Numerous transcriptional targets of
this pathway, as well as one of the central regulators (i.e.,
STAT1) all were coordinately expressed in this ‘‘IFN-
cluster diagram. A scaled-down representation of the 1,247-gene cluster
diagram (see Supplemental Fig. 6 at www.pnas.org for the full cluster
diagram with all gene names). The black bars show the positions of the
clusters discussed in the text: (A) proliferation-associated, (B) IFN-
regulated, (C) B lymphocytes, and (D) stromal cells.
Overview of the combined in vitro and breast tissue specimen
9214Genetics: Perou et al.Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96 (1999)
regulated’’ cluster. The response of this set of genes to IFN-?
and IFN-? was also very similar to the genes’ response to
confluence or senescence (Fig. 1 A and C). A simple inter-
pretation of these results is that the induction of these IFN-
regulated genes in the confluent and senescent cells was the
at confluence and senescence, however, remains unknown.
In addition to the patterns present in Fig. 1, there were other
patterns to be seen in the primary data tables (which are
tab delimited format). Although all of these patterns can be
seen in the primary data, many were not represented in Fig. 1
because we selected for the subset of genes whose transcript
levels varied 3-fold or more in at least two experiments. Hence,
any gene whose expression varied by less than this magnitude,
or was highly expressed in only a single experiment, would not
have been included.
Our goal is to use cDNA microarrays as a tool to understand
and classify tumors on the basis of their global patterns of gene
expression. To this end, several human breast tumors, tissues,
and cell lines were compared, each in turn, to the same HMEC
control samples used for the experiments presented in Fig. 1.
Thirteen grade II-III, grossly dissected, infiltrating ductal
carcinomas were collected, and mRNA was prepared from
each. In addition, two normal breast samples (pools of six and
two whole normal breasts) also were tested. Finally, three
immortal breast-derived cell lines were studied (MCF7, ref. 31;
generated for the 1,247 genes that varied 3-fold or more in
three or more of the 26 samples?experiments (Fig. 2 and Fig.
6, which is published as supplemental data to this article on the
PNAS web site, www.pnas.org). The experimental sample
dendrogram above the cluster diagram shows the identity of
each column?experiment, with the branching pattern and
length of the branches conveying a measure of the relatedness
between the samples (12).
The microarrays used in this study did not contain all of the
genes known to be important for breast cancer biology; for
example, the estrogen receptor and HER2?NEU were notably
absent. Nevertheless, there were still too many clusters of coex-
pressed genes with obvious relevance to breast cancer biology to
of genes (indicated by the black bars in Fig. 2) that we considered
to be particularly significant. All of the other clusters, which
included a cluster of coexpressed ribosomal protein genes, a
cluster of EGF-responsive genes, and a cluster of genes that were
highly expressed in normal breast, can be found in Fig. 6 (see
remain to be found by further exploration of this large data set
(approximately 140,000 independent data points).
The ‘‘proliferation cluster’’ described in Fig. 1 was recapit-
ulated in this larger experiment (Figs. 3A, 5, and 6). In addition
genes in vitro and cell proliferation, we observed that this set
of genes was highly expressed in the three rapidly growing
immortal cell lines, and most significantly, highly expressed in
a subset of tumor specimens. In the tumors, the level of
expression of this proliferation-associated cluster showed a
range of expression from low levels in BC24 and both normal
breast samples (bright green) to high expression levels in BC23
proliferation is the Ki-67 antigen, which is a large protein of
unknown function that is expressed at relatively high levels in
proliferating cells and at much lower levels in quiescent cells
(33–35). To determine whether there was a relationship be-
tween the expression levels of genes in the proliferation cluster
and the Ki-67 assessment, the percentage of Ki-67-positive
carcinoma cells in each tumor section was determined (Figs.
3A and 4 B, D, F, and H for representative Ki-67 stains). The
three tumor specimens that showed the highest level of ex-
pression of the genes in the proliferation cluster contained
70% or greater Ki-67-positive carcinoma cells whereas the
three tumor specimens with the lowest average expression of
Thus, although the correlations in detail are imperfect, there
is general agreement between the expression level of the genes
in the proliferation cluster and a conventional assessment of
proliferation of carcinoma cells.
Breast tumor specimens contain other diverse cell types in
addition to the carcinoma cells (1). We therefore expected to
find gene expression patterns that were contributed by these
nonepithelial cell types. Before discussing these data, it first
should be noted that the use of a single cell line (HMEC) as
a reference made quantitative measurements of gene expres-
sion impossible for all those genes not expressed at all in the
HMEC reference. In these cases, the HMEC reference sam-
ple’s signal intensity at these spots was very close to zero?
background, whereas the experimental sample’s intensity gave
1,247-gene cluster diagram. (A) A portion of the proliferation-
associated cluster. The numbers below each breast tumor’s column
show the percentage of carcinoma cells in each specimen that stained
gene cluster. The letters below each breast tumor’s column identify the
STAT1 staining pattern seen, with O representing no STAT1 staining
(BC17 and Fig. 4A), W representing weak STAT1 staining, S repre-
senting strong staining (BC23 and Fig. 4C), P representing peripheral
tumor cell nest staining (BC14 and Fig. 4E), and L representing
staining of lymphocytes?histiocytes only (BC16 and Fig. 4G).
Expanded view of two gene clusters taken from the
Genetics: Perou et al.Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96 (1999)9215
a significant value. The net result is that the observed ratio is
not an accurate measure of the difference between the two
samples, but is instead seen as an arbitrarily large ratio in favor
of the experimental sample. Therefore, only qualitative mea-
surements could be made on these nonepithelial cell type-
specific spots?genes. Nevertheless, this qualitative assessment
still permitted the identification of gene expression patterns
that were contributed by at least two nonepithelial cell types.
A cluster of genes marked at the bottom of Fig. 2 shows an
expression pattern likely to have been contributed by B
lymphocytes. This cluster included three different Ig genes
(lambda heavy, lambda light, and mu chains) and the generic
leukocyte antigen CD45 (see Fig. 6). Tumor sections were
results showed that the tumors that were positive for Ig
mRNAs as determined by cDNA microarray analysis also
contained CD20 positive cells (data not shown).
A second nontumor cell type that may be contributing a
unique gene expression pattern was tumor-associated stromal
cells. A distinctive cluster of genes that included the extracel-
lular matrix proteins collagen type I? and biglycan were
expressed at high levels in all of the tumor specimens, and only
in Hs578T among all of the cell lines (a carcinosarcoma-
derived cell line that has stromal cell characteristics; ref. 32)
(see Fig. 6).
in vitro also was expressed coordinately in many of the tumors
(Fig. 3B). This cluster of genes was highly expressed in some
of the tumors (BC23), moderately expressed in others (BC14),
and apparently silent in others (BC17). To identify the cell
type(s) that was contributing the IFN-regulated pattern, par-
affin-embedded tumor sections were stained with antibodies
specific for the STAT1 protein. This protein was chosen
because it is a required component of the IFN-? signal
transduction pathway (20) and was expressed coordinately
with the other genes in this cluster. Immunohistochemical
staining of tumor BC17, which expressed the genes in this
cluster at a very low level, showed no reactivity for the STAT1
protein in any cell type, including lymphocytes (Fig. 4A). In
contrast, tumor BC23, which had high STAT1 mRNA levels,
showed strong and homogenous staining of all tumor cells and
many lymphocytes (Fig. 4C). Specimen BC14 showed a unique
pattern of STAT1 staining that could be characterized as a
positive staining of some lymphocytes and the most peripheral
tumor cells of some tumor cell nests, with the tumor cells in the
center of most nests showing little STAT1 reactivity (Fig. 4E).
Finally, a fourth pattern was seen in which only some of the
lymphocytes?histiocytes stained positive for STAT1 whereas
the carcinoma cells did not (BC16 and Fig. 4G).
Variation in gene expression reflects important aspects of
biological variation in cancers. Systematic characterization of
expression patterns associated with specific cell types, and in
response to specific physiological and pathological perturba-
tions, provides a framework for interpreting the biological
significance of the expression patterns observed in each tumor.
In this study we found features of gene expression patterns in
breast cancers that could be related to (i) a complex physio-
logical property (e.g., proliferation), (ii) the activity of specific
signaling pathways (e.g., the IFN-regulated pathway), and (iii)
the cellular composition of the tumors (e.g., the presence of
stromal cells and B lymphocytes).
One of our main goals is to use cDNA microarrays to classify
breast tumors into categories based on shared gene expression
patterns. The tumor specimens analyzed here could readily be
classified based on at least two different gene-expression
parameters: expression levels of the genes in the proliferation-
associated cluster and the IFN-regulated cluster. A much
larger clinical study will no doubt be required to determine
whether expression levels of these, or other sets of genes, can
be used as prognostic indicators. Diverse additional features of
variation in gene expression patterns also were seen among the
tumor samples (see primary data tables at http:??genome-www.
stanford.edu?sbcmp and Fig. 6); all of these gene expression
features may provide the basis for a more precise molecular
taxonomy of breast cancers.
A cluster of IFN-regulated genes was highly expressed in
HMEC under three circumstances: addition of IFN, senes-
cence, and confluence. The latter two suggest that there may
be circumstances that activate expression of these genes other
than the presence of IFN. Similarly, we found multiple cir-
cumstances in which these genes were expressed in the tumor
specimens, some of which may not involve IFNs and may
resemble confluence and?or senescence (BC23). The role of
the STAT family of proteins in breast cell biology is extensive
and complex, with numerous STAT proteins playing important
roles (37–39). Watson and Miller (40) have demonstrated the
presence of high levels of STAT1 protein in some primary
breast tumor nuclear extracts, whereas others have docu-
mented high levels of both STAT1 and STAT3 proteins in
primary breast tumors (41). We, too, see high levels of STAT3
protein in many of the same tumors that express high levels of
STAT1 mRNA and protein (data not shown). It is not clear at
this time what effects the high levels of STAT1 and STAT3
proteins are having on the carcinogenic process, but it is clear
that a subset of BCs express the STAT1 protein at relatively
high levels, which appears to have resulted in the induction of
a known set of IFN-regulated genes.
Breast cancers are complex and highly variable in their
histology. It is not a priori evident that measurements of gene
expression based on total mRNA isolated from such a complex
tissue can be interpreted in terms of the properties of specific
cells (e.g., the carcinoma cells). It therefore is noteworthy that
mens for the STAT1 protein (A, C, E, and G) or for the Ki-67 protein
(B, D, F, and H). (A and B) Tumor BC17. (C and D) Tumor BC23. (E
and F) Tumor BC14. (G and H) Tumor BC16. Magnification: approx-
Immunohistochemical stains of four breast tumor speci-
9216 Genetics: Perou et al.Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96 (1999)
discrete gene expression patterns could be identified within a Download full-text
complex mixture of cell types, and that many of these patterns
then could be assigned to specific cell types, either by using
prior knowledge about the cell type-specific expression of
genes within a cluster (e.g., Igs) or by immunohistochemistry
using either classical reagents (e.g., Ki-67 antibodies) or an-
tibodies specific for products of genes contained within a
cluster (e.g., STAT1). By identifying characteristic clusters of
coexpressed genes and then by using antibodies directed
against a subset of these genes for immunohistochemistry,
archived tumor samples with extensive clinical data can be
made accessible to insights derived from gene expression
analyses. We therefore have reason for optimism that cluster-
ing analysis of cDNA microarray data can be used generally to
study and interpret variation in gene expression in tumors,
without prior separation of the constituent cell types.
We thank William Gerald and Larry Norton for discussions and
tumor specimens, Peter Nagy for tumor procurement, H.S. Wiley for
the m225 antibody and HB2 cell line, Lee and Len Hertzenberg for the
use of their tissue culture facility, and members of the P.O.B. and D.B.
labs for discussions. This work was supported by a grant from the
National Cancer Institute (National Institutes of Health CA 77097)
and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. C.M.P. is a SmithKline
Beecham Pharmaceuticals Fellow of the Life Sciences Research
Foundation. M.B.E. is an Alfred E. Sloan Foundation Postdoctoral
Fellow in Computational Molecular Biology, and D.T.R. is a Walter
and Idun Berry Fellow. P.O.B. is an Associate Investigator of the
Howard Hughes Medical Institute.
1.Ronnov-Jessen, L., Petersen, O. W. & Bissell, M. J. (1996)
Physiol. Rev. 76, 69–125.
Tavassoli, F. A. & Schnitt, S. J. (1992) Pathology of the Breast
(Elsevier, New York).
DeRisi, J. L., Iyer, V. R. & Brown, P. O. (1997) Science 278,
Iyer, V. R., Eisen, M. B., Ross, D. T., Schuler, G., Moore, T., Lee,
et al. (1999) Science 283, 83–87.
Schena, M., Shalon, D., Davis, R. W. & Brown, P. O. (1995)
Science 270, 467–470.
Schena, M., Shalon, D., Heller, R., Chai, A., Brown, P. O. &
Davis, R. W. (1996) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93, 10614–10619.
Shalon, D., Smith, S. J. & Brown, P. O. (1996) Genome Res. 6,
DeRisi, J., Penland, L., Brown, P. O., Bittner, M. L., Meltzer,
P. S., Ray, M., Chen, Y., Su, Y. A. & Trent, J. M. (1996) Nat.
Genet. 14, 457–460.
Chu, S., DeRisi, J., Eisen, M., Mulholland, J., Botstein, D.,
Brown, P. O. & Herskowitz, I. (1998) Science 282, 699–705.
Brown, P. O. & Botstein, D. (1999) Nat. Genet. 21, 33–37.
Alizadeh, A., Eisen, M., Botstein, D., Brown, P. O. & Staudt,
L. M. (1998) J. Clin. Immunol. 18, 373–379.
Eisen, M. B., Spellman, P. T., Brown, P. O. & Botstein, D. (1998)
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 14863–14868.
13. Ermolaeva, O., Rastogi, M., Pruitt, K. D., Schuler, G. D., Bittner,
M. L., Chen, Y., Simon, R., Meltzer, P., Trent, J. M. & Boguski,
M. S. (1998) Nat. Genet. 20, 19–23.
Foster, S. A. & Galloway, D. A. (1996) Oncogene 12, 1773–1779.
Goldstein, S., Moerman, E. J. & Porter, K. (1984) Exp. Cell Res.
Piotrowicz, R. S., Weber, L. A., Hickey, E. & Levin, E. G. (1995)
FASEB J. 9, 1079–1084.
Stampfer, M. R. & Yaswen, P. (1992) Transformation of Human
Epithelial Cells: Molecular and Oncogenetic Mechanisms (CRC,
Boca Raton, FL).
Stampfer, M. R., Pan, C. H., Hosoda, J., Bartholomew, J.,
Mendelsohn, J. & Yaswen, P. (1993) Exp. Cell Res. 208, 175–188.
Stampfer, M. R., Bodnar, A., Garbe, J., Wong, M., Pan, A.,
Villeponteau, B. & Yaswen, P. (1997) Mol. Biol. Cell 8, 2391–
Bromberg, J. F., Horvath, C. M., Wen, Z., Schreiber, R. D. &
Berdichevsky, F., Alford, D., D’Souza, B. & Taylor-Papadimi-
triou, J. (1994) J. Cell Sci. 107, 3557–3568.
Bindl, J. M. & Warnke, R. A. (1986) Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 85,
Stampfer, M. R., Yaswen, P., Alhadeff, M. & Hosoda, J. (1993)
J. Cell Physiol. 155, 210–221.
Harvat, B. L. & Jetten, A. M. (1996) Cell Growth Differ. 7,
Abercrombie, M. (1979) Nature (London) 281, 259–262.
Hayflick, L. (1965) Exp. Cell Res. 37, 614–636.
Benech, P., Mory, Y., Revel, M. & Chebath, J. (1985) EMBO J.
Blomstrom, D. C., Fahey, D., Kutny, R., Korant, B. D. & Knight,
E., Jr. (1986) J. Biol. Chem. 261, 8811–8816.
Lehtonen, A., Matikainen, S. & Julkunen, I. (1997) J. Immunol.
Darnell, J. E., Jr. (1997) Science 277, 1630–1635.
Levenson, A. S. & Jordan, V. C. (1997) Cancer Res. 57, 3071–
Hackett, A. J., Smith, H. S., Springer, E. L., Owens, R. B.,
Nelson-Rees, W. A., Riggs, J. L. & Gardner, M. B. (1977) J. Natl.
Cancer Inst. 58, 1795–1806.
Gerdes, J. (1990) Semin. Cancer Biol. 1, 199–206.
Goodson, W. H., 3rd, Moore, D. H., 2nd, Ljung, B. M., Chew, K.,
Florendo, C., Mayall, B., Smith, H. S. & Waldman, F. M. (1998)
Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 49, 155–164.
Schluter, C., Duchrow, M., Wohlenberg, C., Becker, M. H., Key,
G., Flad, H. D. & Gerdes, J. (1993) J. Cell Biol. 123, 513–522.
Stamenkovic, I. & Seed, B. (1988) J. Exp. Med. 167, 1975–1980.
Liu, X., Robinson, G. W., Wagner, K. U., Garrett, L., Wynshaw-
Boris, A. & Hennighausen, L. (1997) Genes Dev. 11, 179–186.
Udy, G. B., Towers, R. P., Snell, R. G., Wilkins, R. J., Park, S. H.,
Ram, P. A., Waxman, D. J. & Davey, H. W. (1997) Proc. Natl.
Acad. Sci. USA 94, 7239–7244.
Smith, P. D. & Crompton, M. R. (1998) Biochem. J. 331, 381–385.
Watson, C. J. & Miller, W. R. (1995) Br. J. Cancer 71, 840–844.
Garcia, R. & Jove, R. (1998) J. Biomed. Sci. 5, 79–85.
Genetics: Perou et al.Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96 (1999)9217