Acute behavioral effects and abuse potential of trazodone, zolpidem and triazolam in humans.

Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson 39216, USA.
Psychopharmacology (Impact Factor: 3.99). 07/1999; 144(3):220-33. DOI: 10.1007/s002130050997
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The present study examined the acute behavioral effects and abuse potential of three drugs commonly used to treat sleep disorders, trazodone, zolpidem and triazolam, and placebo in ten male volunteers with histories of alcohol and drug abuse. Trazodone (100, 200 and 300 mg), a triazolopyridine antidepressant, was included because antidepressants are being used more frequently to treat sleep disorders, but it is unclear whether they have a distinct behavioral pharmacologic profile relative to benzodiazepine hypnotics. Zolpidem (15, 30 and 45 mg), an imidazopyridine hypnotic, was tested because it is the most commonly prescribed hypnotic and purportedly has a unique benzodiazepine-receptor binding profile. Triazolam (0.25, 0.5 and 0.75 mg), a triazolobenzodiazepine hypnotic, was included as the standard component because previous laboratory studies have demonstrated that it has at least some abuse potential. Trazodone, zolpidem and triazolam generally produced comparable dose-related increases in scores on the PCAG scale of the ARCI, which suggests the doses tested were equivalent on some behavioral dimension. The effects of trazodone on subject-rated items thought to measure abuse potential (e.g., subject ratings of Willing to Take Again) were less than those observed with triazolam. Zolpidem and triazolam produced comparable effects on these measures. The highest dose of zolpidem, but not triazolam, increased ratings of Like Drug, Happy, Good Effects, Friendly, Elated, Carefree and Bad Effects. Triazolam and zolpidem produced dose-dependent impairment on all of the performance tasks. Trazodone impaired performance on some, but not all, of these tasks. Consistent with the pharmacokinetics of these compounds, the time-action functions of trazodone, zolpidem and triazolam were similar on these measures. These data suggest that trazodone has less abuse potential than triazolam, and may be a viable alternative to benzodiazepine hypnotics in individuals with histories of alcohol or drug abuse. By contrast, despite its unique neuropharmacological profile, the acute behavioral effects and abuse potential of zolpidem are comparable to those of triazolam.

  • Source
    Revista Colombiana de Psiquiatría. 09/2006; 35(3):429-435.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Dual orexin receptor antagonists (DORAs) enable initiation and maintenance of sleep in patients with primary insomnia. Blockade of the orexin system has shown reduction of drug-seeking behavior in animal studies, supporting the role of orexin antagonism as a novel approach for treating substance abuse. Since hypnotics are traditionally associated with misuse, a lack of abuse liability of DORAs would offer significant benefits over current therapies for sleep disorders. In this randomized, crossover, proof-of-concept study, single oral doses of the DORA almorexant (200, 400, and 1,000 mg) were administered to healthy subjects with previous non-therapeutic experience with central nervous system depressants and were compared with placebo and single oral doses of zolpidem (20 and 40 mg), a benzodiazepine-like drug. Subjective measures of abuse potential (visual analog scales [VAS], Addiction Research Center Inventory, and Subjective Drug Value) and objective measures (divided attention [DA]) were evaluated over 24 h post-dose in 33 evaluable subjects. Drug Liking VAS peak effect (E max; primary endpoint) was significantly higher for all doses of almorexant and zolpidem compared with placebo (p < 0.001). Almorexant 200 mg showed significantly less 'Drug Liking' than both zolpidem doses (p < 0.01), and almorexant 400 mg had smaller effects than zolpidem 20 mg (p < 0.05), while almorexant 1,000 mg was not different from either zolpidem dose. Results were similar for other subjective measures, although almorexant generally showed smaller negative and perceptual effects compared with zolpidem. Almorexant also showed less cognitive impairment compared with zolpidem on most DA endpoints. This study in humans investigating single doses of almorexant is the first to explore and show abuse liability of a DORA, a class of compounds that is not only promising for the treatment of sleep disorders, but also of addiction.
    CNS Drugs 03/2014; 28(4). · 4.38 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This paper presents a design of a robust PI controller using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) method as an Active Queue Management (AQM) for congestion avoidance in computer networks. In this method the parameters of PI controller are tuned using PSO method subject to H-infinity constraints. The analytical results for linearized TCP/AQM model are presented using Matlab. The results show that a faster response time as well as the regulation of the output to a constant value by the designed controller can be achieved. Further, the designed controller provides good tracking performance under different circumstances for congestion avoidance in computer networks. Finally, a comparison with classical PI and Fuzzy PI based genetic algorithm controllers is presented.
    Future Communication Networks (ICFCN), 2012 International Conference on; 01/2012


Available from
Sep 5, 2014