Fetal type lymphocytes in insulin dependent diabetes mellitus.
ABSTRACT CD5+ B and gamma/delta T lymphocytes constituting a major population in the fetus and newborn infant, represent two small subsets of the B and T lymphocyte compartment in healthy adults. There is evidence for their potential involvement and relative expansion in autoimmune disorders. In insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) CD5+ B lymphocyte counts have been found to be increased or normal. The aim of our study was to determine the percentage of both "fetal type" lymphocyte subsets in peripheral blood of 22 recently diagnosed children with IDDM, in that of 13 high risk subjects (islet cell antibody (ICA) positive non-diabetic Ist degree relatives of diabetic children) and in 43 healthy controls. The percentage of gamma/delta TCR+ cells and of CD5+ B lymphocytes was found to be significantly (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.03, respectively) higher in the diabetic and prediabetic groups as compared to controls. Young children with IDDM associated antibodies carry a higher risk of developing clinical IDDM than older individuals. In our hands, the percentage of both CD5+ B and gamma/delta T lymphocytes was higher in the younger population. However, age-dependent decrease for both lymphocyte subpopulations in IDDM-prediabetic patients was less than in healthy controls. Since the above subpopulations are supposed to play a role in immune response to conserved structures, these observations would suggest a higher capacity of older individuals to 'natural autoimmunity" and would explain at least in part the increased risk of antibody positive young children to develop IDDM.
Article: Effect of photopheresis on lymphocyte population in children with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In recent years photopheresis has been claimed to be an effective form of immunomodulation. It has also been shown to have an effect on the disease process at the onset of type 1 diabetes. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized study, we analyzed if the effect of photopheresis in children with newly diagnosed diabetes is related to changes in the balance of lymhocyte populations. We also analyzed if lymphocyte subsets were related to recent infection, mild or aggressive disease manifestations, heredity, or gender. Nineteen children received active treatment with photopheresis, while 21 children received sham pheresis (placebo group). No influence of a history of previous infection, heredity, or certain clinical parameters on lymphocyte subsets was found. At the onset of type 1 diabetes, girls showed a higher proportion and a larger number of T cells (CD3+) and T-helper cells (CD4+) and a higher proportion of naïve CD4+ CD45RA+ cells. In the placebo group, an increase in the number of subsets with the activated phenotype in both the CD4(CD29+) and the CD8 (CD11a+) compartments was noted during the course of the study. These changes did not occur in the photopheresis group. No relation between lymphocyte subsets and clinical outcome was found 1 year after the treatment with photopheresis. In conclusion, we found no major effect of photopheresis on lymphocyte populations in a group of children with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes. However, in the placebo group the proportions of activated CD4 and CD8 cells increased over time. Since these changes did not occur in the actively treated group, our findings suggest that photopheresis may have some suppressive effects.Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology 10/2004; 11(5):856-61. · 2.51 Impact Factor