Nitric oxide modulates the gastrointestinal plasma extravasation following intraabdominal surgical manipulation in rats.
ABSTRACT The actions of nitric oxide (NO) on gastrointestinal plasma loss, assessed by the leakage of [125I]human serum albumin, provoked by intraabdominal surgery and organ manipulation has been investigated in pentobarbitone-anaesthesized rats. Gentle manipulation (3 min) of the stomach or the small intestine following laparotomy leads to an increase in albumin extravasation in the stomach, duodenum, jejunum and colon over 1 h. Administration of the NO synthase inhibitors, N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (1-5 mg kg(-1), s.c.) and N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine (12.5-50 mg kg(-1), s.c.), provoked a further substantial elevation of gastrointestinal albumin extravasation in the surgically manipulated rat, but not in control rats. This effect could be prevented by the pretreatment (15 min) with L-arginine (300 mg kg(-1), s.c.) or by the concurrent infusion of the NO donor, S-nitroso-glutathione (5 microg kg(-1) min(-1), i.v.). Endogenous NO, most likely formed by endothelial NO synthase, thus appears to maintain microvascular integrity during surgery and organ manipulation of the gastrointestinal tract.
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ABSTRACT: Superoxide dismutase reduces injury in many disease processes, implicating superoxide anion radical (O2-.) as a toxic species in vivo. A critical target of superoxide may be nitric oxide (NO.) produced by endothelium, macrophages, neutrophils, and brain synaptosomes. Superoxide and NO. are known to rapidly react to form the stable peroxynitrite anion (ONOO-). We have shown that peroxynitrite has a pKa of 7.49 +/- 0.06 at 37 degrees C and rapidly decomposes once protonated with a half-life of 1.9 sec at pH 7.4. Peroxynitrite decomposition generates a strong oxidant with reactivity similar to hydroxyl radical, as assessed by the oxidation of deoxyribose or dimethyl sulfoxide. Product yields indicative of hydroxyl radical were 5.1 +/- 0.1% and 24.3 +/- 1.0%, respectively, of added peroxynitrite. Product formation was not affected by the metal chelator diethyltriaminepentaacetic acid, suggesting that iron was not required to catalyze oxidation. In contrast, desferrioxamine was a potent, competitive inhibitor of peroxynitrite-initiated oxidation because of a direct reaction between desferrioxamine and peroxynitrite rather than by iron chelation. We propose that superoxide dismutase may protect vascular tissue stimulated to produce superoxide and NO. under pathological conditions by preventing the formation of peroxynitrite.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 03/1990; 87(4):1620-4. · 9.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: CONGENERS of nitrogen monoxide (NO) are neuroprotective and neurodestructive1– 7. To address this apparent paradox, we considered the effects on neurons of compounds characterized by alternative redox states of NO: nitric oxide (NO.) and nitrosonium ion (NO+)8. Nitric oxide, generated from NO. donors or synthesized endogenously after NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) receptor activation, can lead to neurotoxicity3,4. Here, we report that NO.-mediated neurotoxicity is engendered, at least in part, by reaction with superoxide anion (O.- 2), apparently leading to formation of peroxynitrite (ONOO−), and not by NO. alone. In contrast, the neuroprotective effects of NO result from downregulation of NMDA-receptor activity by reaction with thiol group(s) of the receptor's redox modulatory site1. This reaction is not mediated by NO. itself, but occurs under conditions supporting S-nitrosylation of NMDA receptor thiol (reaction or transfer of NO+). Moreover, the redox versatility of NO allows for its interconversion from neuroprotective to neurotoxic species by a change in the ambient redox milieu. The details of this complex redox chemistry of NO may provide a mechanism for harnessing neuroprotective effects and avoiding neurotoxicity in the central nervous system.08/1993; 364(6438):626-632.
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ABSTRACT: The time-dependent actions following pretreatment or delayed administration of the nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor, N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) on colonic inflammation and inducible NO synthase activity following the intrarectal administration of trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS) were evaluated in the rat. Intracolonic instillation of TNBS (30 mg in 0.25 ml of 50% ethanol) led to macroscopic injury, an increase of mucosal myeloperoxidase activity and the expression of the Ca2+-independent inducible NO synthase over 8 days. The inflammatory response following TNBS reached maximum levels between 12 and 72 h and then it declined until 14 days. Oral administration of L-NAME (25 mg/kg per 24 h in the drinking water) 2 days before TNBS augmented macroscopic damage and increased colonic inducible NO synthase activity 6, 12, 24 and 72 h after TNBS administration. In contrast, when L-NAME was administered 6 h after TNBS instillation, at time of expression of inducible NO synthase, the macroscopic lesions were reduced, as well as the enhanced inducible NO synthase activity, determined, over 72 h. Delayed (6 h after TNBS) administration of L-NAME also attenuated the colonic myeloperoxidase activity provoked by TNBS, after 24 h. This activity was not affected by pretreatment (2 days before TNBS) with L-NAME. These findings indicate that the timing of administration of non-selective NO synthase inhibitors such as L-NAME, in models of colitis is critical to the eventual outcome. Thus, pretreatment with L-NAME, which will inhibit constitutive NO synthase, exacerbates the subsequent damage following challenge. In contrast, delayed administration of L-NAME at the time of inducible NO synthase expression, has a beneficial action on the colonic injury and inflammation.European Journal of Pharmacology 11/1997; 336(2-3):219-24. · 2.59 Impact Factor