Interleukin 17, a T-cell-derived cytokine, promotes tumorigenicity of human cervical tumors in nude mice.
ABSTRACT Interleukin (IL) 17 is a proinflammatory cytokine secreted mainly by activated human memory CD4 T cells that induces IL-6, IL-8, and nitric oxide. Because IL-6 and IL-8 have been implicated in the pathogenesis of cervical cancer, we investigated the action of IL-17 on human cervical tumor cell lines in vitro and in vivo. We showed that in vitro, IL-17 increases IL-6 and IL-8 secretion by cervical carcinoma cell lines at both protein and mRNA levels. No direct effect of IL-17 on in vitro proliferation of cervical tumor cell lines could be demonstrated. However, two cervical cell lines transfected with a cDNA encoding IL-17 exhibited a significant increase in tumor size as compared to the parent tumor when transplanted in nude mice. This enhanced tumor growth elicited by IL-17 was associated with increased expression of IL-6 and macrophage recruitment at the tumor site. A potential role of IL-17 in modulation of the human cervical tumor phenotype was also supported by its expression on the cervical tumor in patients with CD4 infiltration. IL-17 therefore behaves like a T-cell-specific cytokine with paradoxical tumor-promoting activity. This may partially explain previous reports concerning the deleterious effect of CD4 T cells in cancer.
- SourceAvailable from: Michael R Freeman[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: T lymphocytes infiltrate wounds, tumors, and atherosclerotic plaques, pathophysiological processes characterized by the migration and proliferation of vascular cells and fibroblasts. Although T lymphocytes are known to produce cytokines for inflammatory cells, it has not been demonstrated that they synthesize growth factors that are mitogenic for vascular cells and fibroblasts. We demonstrate that cultured T lymphocytes isolated from normal human peripheral blood synthesize and export two well-characterized growth factors, heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). This conclusion is based on mRNA expression analysis, heparin-affinity chromatography profiles, target-cell specificity, and functional inhibition by specific neutralizing antibodies. Atypically, a substantial amount of T-cell-derived bFGF-like activity appears to be constitutively released into conditioned medium, almost as much as is associated with T-cell lysates. bFGF is synthesized and exported by purified CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, whereas HB-EGF is synthesized and exported primarily by CD4+ T cells. The T-cell-derived HB-EGF and bFGF activities are potent mitogens for fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells, and the bFGF-like activity is also mitogenic for endothelial cells. These results suggest that T lymphocytes may play key roles in mediating smooth muscle hyperplasia associated with atherosclerosis and in angiogenesis associated with wound healing and tumor growth by acting locally to deliver vascular-cell growth factors to tissues.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 05/1994; 91(8):2890-94. · 9.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Many factors have been implicated in the etiology of cervical neoplasia, with human papilloma virus being the latest in a long line of agents that may on their own or in combination exert various initiating and promoting effects on cervical cells, resulting in their transformation. However, for such altered cells to become invasive, it is clear that they must undergo alterations in their rate of turnover, state of differentiation, and motility. We have investigated the production of the multifunctional cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) by five new cervical carcinoma cell lines (XH1, EH2, DE3, JE6, and SM7) and the commercially available CaSki cell line, and have studied the effects of this cytokine on the growth of the cells in vitro. All the cell lines produce biologically active IL-6 in amounts varying between 0.35 to 2.0 ng/ml. In the presence of goat anti-sera to IL-6 all the tumor cell lines showed inhibition of growth. IL-6 acts as an autocrine growth factor for in vitro cervical tumor cell growth.Gynecologic Oncology 08/1993; 50(1):15-9. · 3.93 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Herpesvirus saimiri induces T-cell lymphomas in various species of New World monkeys and in rabbits, and it is able to immortalize monkey T lymphocytes in vitro. Sequences responsible for these effects have been localized to a region of the genome that varies significantly among the virus subgroups A, B, and C. We now report that infection of human blood lymphocytes and thymocytes with strains of subgroup C, in contrast to viruses of the other subgroups, yields continuously proliferating T-cell lines with the phenotype of mature CD4- or CD8-positive cells. Infection with strains of Herpes-virus saimiri subgroup C can thus be used to generate human T-cell lines for a variety of immunological and developmental studies.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 05/1992; 89(7):3116-9. · 9.74 Impact Factor