Structural and functional characterization of an epitope in the conserved C-terminal region of HIV-1 gp120.
ABSTRACT Through an integrated study of the reactivity of a monoclonal antibody, 803-15.6, with synthetic peptides and native recombinant HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120, we have obtained structure-functional information on a region of rgp120 not yet elucidated by X-ray crystallography. mAb 803-15.6 binds with high affinity and broad cross-clade specificity to the conserved C-terminal region (amino acids 502-516) of HIV-1 rgp120. Phage display selection from a random peptide library identified the core binding motif as AXXKXRH, homologous to residues 502-508. Using quantitative binding analyses, the affinity of mAb 803-15.6 for native, monomeric recombinant gp120HXB2 (rgp120) was found to be similar to that for the synthetic gp120 peptide (502-516). Circular dichroism studies indicate that the synthetic peptide largely has a random coil conformation in solution. The results therefore suggest that the 803-15.6 epitope is fully accessible on rgp120 and that this region of rgp120 is as flexible as the synthetic peptide. Residues 502-504 are on the edge of a putative gp41 binding site that has been postulated to change conformation on CD4 binding. However, the affinity of mAb 803-15.6 for rgp120 is not affected by binding of CD4 and vice-versa. These results suggest either that the 502-504 region does not change conformation upon CD4 binding, or that recombinant gp120 does not undergo the same changes as occur in the native viral gp120-gp41 oligomer. The detailed characterization of the 803-15.6 epitope may be useful for further study of the role of the C5 region of gp120 in the viral attachment and fusion process.
- SourceAvailable from: ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
Article: Viruses and multiple sclerosis.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic demyelinating disorder of unknown etiology, possibly caused by a virus or virus-triggered immunopathology. The virus might reactivate after years of latency and lyse oligodendrocytes, as in progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, or initiate immunopathological demyelination, as in animals infected with Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus or coronaviruses. The argument for a viral cause of MS is supported by epidemiological analyses and studies of MS in identical twins, indicating that disease is acquired. However, the most important evidence is the presence of bands of oligoclonal IgG (OCBs) in MS brain and CSF that persist throughout the lifetime of the patient. OCBs are found almost exclusively in infectious CNS disorders, and antigenic targets of OCBs represent the agent that causes disease. Here, the authors review past attempts to identify an infectious agent in MS brain cells and discuss the promise of using recombinant antibodies generated from clonally expanded plasma cells in brain and CSF to identify disease-relevant antigens. They show how this strategy has been used successfully to analyze antigen specificity in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, a chronic encephalitis caused by measles virus, and in neuromyelitis optica, a chronic autoimmune demyelinating disease produced by antibodies directed against the aquaporin-4 water channel.The Neuroscientist 12/2011; 17(6):659-76. · 7.62 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Abstract Despite decades of antiviral drug research and development, viruses still remain a top global healthcare problem. Compared to eukaryotic cells, viruses are composed by a limited numbers of proteins that, nevertheless, set up multiple interactions with cellular components, allowing the virus to take control of the infected cell. Each virus/host interaction can be considered as a therapeutical target for new antiviral drugs but, unfortunately, the systematic study of a so huge number of interactions is time-consuming and expensive, calling for models overcoming these drawbacks. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) is a label-free optical technique to study biomolecular interactions in real time by detecting reflected light from a prism-gold film interface. Launched 20 years ago, SPR has become a nearly irreplaceable technology for the study of biomolecular interactions. Accordingly, SPR is increasingly used in the field of virology, spanning from the study of biological interactions to the identification of putative antiviral drugs. From the literature available, SPR emerges as an ideal link between conventional biological experimentation and system biology studies functional to the identification of highly connected viral or host proteins that act as nodal points in virus life cycle and thus considerable as therapeutical targets for the development of innovative antiviral strategies.Critical Reviews in Microbiology 09/2013; · 6.09 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The complex hide-and-seek game between HIV-1 and the host immune system has impaired the development of an efficient vaccine. In addition, the high variability of the virus impedes the long-term control of viral replication by small antiviral drugs. For more than 20 years, phage display technology has been intensively used in the field of HIV-1 to explore the epitope landscape recognized by monoclonal and polyclonal HIV-1-specific antibodies, thereby providing precious data about immunodominant and neutralizing epitopes. In parallel, biopanning experiments with various combinatorial or antibody fragment libraries were conducted on viral targets as well as host receptors to identify HIV-1 inhibitors. Besides these applications, phage display technology has been applied to characterize the enzymatic specificity of the HIV-1 protease. Phage particles also represent valuable alternative carriers displaying various HIV-1 antigens to the immune system and eliciting antiviral responses. This review presents and summarizes the different studies conducted with regard to the nature of phage libraries, target display mode and biopanning procedures.International Journal of Molecular Sciences 12/2012; 13(4):4727-94. · 2.34 Impact Factor